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Updated: 2022.07.03 


waw (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)teit (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)beit (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)nun (Qumran-Nabatean Aramaic-Hebrew)

Post-135 CE Nabatean Confederation of mixed Arab Tribes (original map by MartinCollin,; edited 2022.06.30 by Yirmeyahu Ben-David to show the Roman-era Nabatean region—roughly the Hajaz area of modern Saudi-Arabia)

Akkadian 𒈾𒁀𒌅 (Nabatean), in MH: ãlꞋëphbeit: נָבַּטוּ; in MH: נַבָּטִיםNabateans,Nabatean Kingdom,Palestinians — A mingled-confederation (eiꞋrëv rav) of Aramaic-Arab tribes who populated the eastern coast of the Red Sea (modern western Saudi-Arabia) during the Roman Era, migrating northward along the east shore of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh absorbing—co-mingling, assimilating—the Õmōn•imꞋ) in what is today modern Jordan.

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeBCE 5th Century, Herodotus' Description of East Mediter­ranean Coast, Syrian-Pulossia ("Palestina" )

After 135 CE, consequent to the Bar-KōkhꞋvã Revolt, Hadrian Aelius exiled the Yᵊhūd•imꞋ, renamed Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim after his own surname, Aelia Capitolina, and awarded the evacuated city as a reward to the veterans of the 10th Roman Legion for their retirement village.

After Hadrian had exiled Jews from YᵊhūdꞋãh in 135 CE and awarded it to Roman Legion veterans, Hadrian went on to expand the southern border of the Roman province of Syrian Palestina (which had been north of modern Lebanon) ≈315 km (≈200 mi) south­ward to envelop and include the coastland of the Roman-occupied province of YᵊhūdꞋãh. An additional reason for redrawing the border south of Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh, however, may also have included reinforcing protection of the NëgꞋëv from a growing threat from Nabatean border incursions and skirmishes.

There is also a second, apparently corroborative, suggestion (in addition to Hadrian having earlier moved the border south in 135 CE) that, by the early 4th century CE, the Romans had recognized the Nabateans as an even greater threat to the southern border of Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh. This hint, in Diocletian's edicts against Christians of 302 & 304 CE, has long been concealed by a later, after-the-fact 4th century CE miso-Judaic history-rewrite agenda of the early gentile Roman Christian clergy, deliberately distorting the aim of Diocletian's edicts—which were explicitly against Christians (not Jews, who had been exiled more than a century earlier, and were, since 135 CE, nowhere found). Long after the edicts were reversed, the politically empowered 4th century CE (gentile Roman) Christian Church clergy retroactively and deliberately misconstrued Diocletian's edicts, redirecting the edicts to point away from their own gentile Roman Christianity to, instead, displace the long (>a century) diapaused Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Jews—whom Roman Christians proclaimed far and wide to be false Christians, condemned "under the Law" to the fires of hell! Such false-Christian (Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ) Jews, The Apostate Paul's 4th-century CE gentile Roman Christian Church declared, not their own gentile Roman Christian selves under Rome's fabricated "1st Pope, St. Peter", had been the real targets of Diocletian's (Rome's) edicts.

The early Roman Christian επίσκοπος throughout far-flung regions of the Roman Empire were desperate to retroactively, falsely rewrite their history as identical with, overwriting and superseding, Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Jews—but tracing back not to Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim, but rather retroactively fabricating tracks back to 1st century CE Rome! (Ignoring the archaeological burials of the original Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ in Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim today, Roman Christians created counterfeit graves in Rome of "Simon Peter" and others.) This fabricated "history" was aided by falsely representing that, diametrically contrary to fact, their gentile Christian selves and their fabricated "Pope St. Peter" and Church weren't the target of Roman wrath. (The Καινής Διαθήκης teaches that "It was Jews under the Law who were damned", not real—read gentile—Christians). This Christian-contrived differentiation from "Jews damned to hell under the Law" (miso-Judaism) was essential to give credence to their false claim of an ultimately Roman origin of a gentile Roman Christianity and Church, arrogating the early "apostles" as "ministering" to Roman gentiles (rather than the large 1st century CE community of Roman Jews in many parts of the Roman Empire outside of Roman-occupied "Palestine"); and, most of all, to give credence to their false claim to an original (fabricated) Roman επίσκοπος "Peter" to anchor gentile Roman Christian successor "popes" of a gentile Church.

However, the facts contradict Christian claims. By 303 & 304 CE, when Roman Emperor Diocletian issued his edicts, the exiled Jews, including the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, had long since fled or gone underground in a state of diapause (nowhere found until I resurrected the name and movement in 1972 CE; others calling themselves Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ but not recognizing my leadership are posers). The only possible Christians (followers of The Apostate Paul's Christianity & Church), both by definition and presence, were gentile Romans! Diocletian issued his edicts specifically against all Christians—who since soon after 135 CE solely comprised Roman gentiles! Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Jews (who predated The Apostate Paul and were never Christians) had disappeared from the historical annals, and even Hellenist Jews, included in the exile of 135 CE, were no longer present in Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh for Diocletian to have targeted! Diocletian's targets, contrary to subsequent gentile Roman Christian claims, attempting to disassociate themselves from their own villany in earlier Roman persecutions, were entirely gentile Roman Hellenist followers of the Hellenist Roman-citizen Turk, The Apostate Paul's, gentile Roman Christianity & Church.

Ergo, Diocletion's 4th-century edicts against Christians were clearly not against Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Jews, since

  1. centuries earlier, c 65 CE, the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ had excised The Apostate Paul and his entire "epiphany" of a Greek god inspired, apothnaetized demigod (YëshꞋ"u)—Christianity, and its foreign, gentile, originally 7 Roman Syrian Christian Churches,
  2. the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ were Jews, never connected to The Apostate Paul's Roman gentile-assimilated Christianity or Church and
  3. the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, being Pᵊrush•imꞋ, Beit Hi•leilꞋ Jews—having been exiled from YᵊhūdꞋãh by the Romans back in 135 CE—were no longer even present there!

The original Christians, of the first Christian Church—"the first to be called so", was founded by The Apostate Paul and located in Antioch, Syria, far from Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim, decades after the death of RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa and, from the first moment, was always predominantly Syrian Arab (followed by Turkish) Christians. The original Christians, and therefore all subsequent (true) Christians were (are and will be) the post-Apostate Paul-authored "Epiphany" Καινής Διαθήκης, Roman mutation of Ζεύς, counterfeit; neither Yᵊhūd•imꞋ nor Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ!!! Diocletian, the Romans and all others up through 3rd century CE knew the difference between Roman Christians and what Roman Christians and the Christian Church proclaimed as enemy "Jews under the law of sin and death" (most specifically, the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ).

Toward the end of the 3rd century CE, to better organize the enforcement of Diocletian's edicts in the enlarged Roman-occupied province of Palestina, the Romans transferred the NëgꞋëv, the Õmōn•imꞋ (Southern TransJordan) and the Sin•aiꞋ from Arabia (which included the Nabateans) to Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh. This cumulatively, incorporated practically the entire eastern coastland rim of the Mediterranean down to the Gulf of Eil•atꞋ all within the enlarged Roman-occupied province of "Palestine" (originally YᵊhūdꞋãh).

Probably concurrently, as part of enforcing Diocletian's edicts (of 303–304 CE)  more efficiently, the Roman 10th Legion was transferred south from Roman-occupied Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim and Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh down to Eil•atꞋ, at the mouth of the Gulf of Eil•atꞋ. Transferring the Roman 10th Legion to the mouth of the Gulf of Eil•atꞋ was likely a response to increasingly serious Nabatean border incursions and skirmishes from the south; choking-off Nabatean migration.

There is no record of any notable population change in Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh until the Muslims invaded in the 7th century (636) CE. In the interim, most of Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh seems to have been left to unpopulated wilderness and nomadic EiꞋrab shepherds.

In 636 CE, the nascent Muslim EiꞋrabs defeated the Romans, forcing the Romans and their veterans to leave what then became Muslim EiꞋrab-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh (formerly Roman "Palestine") and, for the first time, Muslim EiꞋrab-occupied إيلياء (Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim, formerly Roman "Aelia Capitolina"). The Muslim EiꞋrab occupation of YᵊhūdꞋãh and Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim opened the way for nearby Nabateans and other EiꞋrab and non-Arab Muslims to migrate freely into previously Roman-occupied YᵊhūdꞋãh, including previously Roman-occupied Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim. (Note that, despite the Islamic myths of riding a supernatural flying Pegasus, Mohammed, who had died 4 years earlier, never set foot on Har ha-BaꞋyit, nor in Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim, nor even in YᵊhūdꞋãh/​"Syria-Palestina".

As a result, EiꞋrabs today who label themselves "Palestinians" contradict historical reality: the ancient Pūlossians (corrupted to "Philistines" and modern "Palestinians") were Greek, not Arab! No modern Arabs even claimed to be "Palestinians" until the 20th century CE (namely, the father of modern terrorists, Yasser Arafat!)

Clearly, the Romans were not indigenous to YᵊhūdꞋãh nor Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim. It's further clear from the post-Roman migrations of Nabatean, Õmōn•imꞋ and Bedouin into an essentially empty region of YᵊhūdꞋãh, invaded in the 7th century CE by Muslim EiꞋrab occupiers, that none of these were indigenous. There is not one Arab reliably documented prior to the Muslim invasion of 636 CE! Every EiꞋrab in YᵊhūdꞋãh and Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim is no more than a descendant the post-Roman occupation. Further, predominantly by far, most EiꞋrabs in the Shō•mᵊr•ōnꞋ are descendants of East Mesopotamians, who were forcibly immigrated from scattered parts all over Mesopotamia as part of the same 𒀸𒋩𒆠 (Neo-Assyrian Empire)  Shar Neo-Assyrian (cBCE 727–722) Shūlᵊmãnū-Asharëdū (''Friend-god is pre-eminent''; Shalmaneser) 5th (Shūlᵊmãnū 5th) deracination that forcibly emigrated indigenous Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ from the Shō•mᵊr•ōnꞋ in BCE 722 to scattered parts all over eastern Mesopotamia. As a result, the Shō•mᵊr•ōnꞋ today comprises post-BCE 722 mixed-lineage East Mesopotamians, most of whom converted to Islam.

AhꞋzãh, by contrast, more likely comprises a tiny remnant of its Roman-era population (above), probably mostly Nabateans, since integrated with an overwhelming majority of post-7th century CE Muslim EiꞋrabs.

Pay it forward! Quote & Cite:

Ben-David, Yirmeyahu. Netzarim Jews World Headquarters, Ra'anana, Israel. www.netzarim.co.il. Nabateans. http://www.netzarim.co.il/Shared/Glossary/Nabateans.htm Today's date.

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