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Update: 2017.12.11

Note that non-Jewish attempts are not only typically ignorant of ancient Judaism, Hebrew and even Greek but, also being ignorant that Hebrew reads right to left, often have their gems, and even their mistranslations, in reverse order. Based on this and other research, this table is the most likely correct, giving the modern gems corresponding to the original language in Ta•na"kh.

Authorities differ concerning many of these identifications. in Modern Hebrew derives almost certainly from the Greek ἴασπις; again, almost certainly the linguistic origin of the English "jasper." Yet, is translated in Josephus and LXX as Βήρυλλος, which comes in a variety of colors. Most authorities suggest it was greenish. But scholars also surmise that the ancients lacked modern geological criteria, classifying pretty stones solely by color; i.e. in ancient times, this term may simply have meant "pretty green stone" rather than a geologically identified gem in modern, scientific, terms. The emerald might not have been known to them, yet its ancient substitute, malachite, is associated with . This might suggest a diamond, which again probably wasn't distinguished by the ancients and its substitute, rock crystal, is associated with . And so it goes.    

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