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Hebrew Glossary: T

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anꞋã(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

In Hebrew, the original followers of Riyb"y were called the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ (Hellenized-Anglicized to "Nazarenes"). The real content is in the main body of the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on the Netzarim logo (at top) for an exciting visit to the 'Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Riyb"y and his original, Jewish, followers—before the excision of The Apostate Paul, c. 49 CE, that resulted in his Great Jesus-Christianity Apostasy, founded (7 churches) in Anatolia (now modern Turkey). Just as importantly, learn how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically Ta•na״khꞋ-coherent Riyb"y, according to the bᵊrit with יְהוָׂה—which is what genuinely can make you a Jew; regardless of any pronouncement(s) by mortals! (Walking in the bᵊrit must be among Jews in order to be witnessed by Jews; but their, or any mortals', endorsement is of no spiritual relevance whatsoever.)

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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טַעַם Pronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2011.07.26]

Taamei ha-Miqra ha-Teimanim (''Tastes of the Yemenite Bible reading''; Yemenite cantillation)
Click to enlargeTei•mãn•iꞋ Accent & Cantillation Marks

masc . n. taꞋam; טעם, טעמי המקרא, taamei ha-miqra taste, flavor. The comb. pl. is …טַעֲמֵי (ta•am•eiꞋ…; tastes of…).

טַעֲמֵי הַמִּקְרָא (ta•am•eiꞋ ha-mi•qrãꞋ) — cantillation, liturgical chant (lit. tastes, or flavors, of the miꞋqrã). These marks determine the accents and punctuation according to the Oral Tradition of the community, which dictates the traditional meaning, governing the proper interpretation, of the passage.

Each element of the Jewish community has its own tradition for the liturgical chants. The most pristine is טַעֲמֵי הַמִּקְרָא הַתֵּימָנִים (ta•am•eiꞋ ha-miꞋqrã ha-Tei•mãn•imꞋ).

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טָהוֹרPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. tã•hōrꞋ; טהור, טהרה, taharah, tahor Free of contamination, pure. The cognate טָהֳרָה (tã•hãr•ãhꞋ) means "decontaminating" or purifying. These are derived from the verb, usually expressed in the pi•eilꞋ, טִהֵר (ti•heirꞋ; he decontaminated—popularly "purified"). All of these are the antonyms of tã•meiꞋ and tum•ãhꞋ.

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'תַאגPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]


Taj; Taj crown (from Arabic), refers to the oldest Tei•mãn•imꞋ mss. of the SeiꞋphër Tōr•ãhꞋ, which date to the 9th century C.E.

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תַּחֲנוּןPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2010.07.20]

masc . n. Ta•khan•unꞋ; תחנון, takhanun, takhnun pl. תַּחֲנוּנִים (ta•khan•un•imꞋ) — a supplication imploring חֵן (graciousness).

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טָלֶהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2010.05.20]

taleh - lamb

masc . n.Tãl•ëhꞋ;טלה, taleh a lamb. Compare & contrast with këvꞋës, aꞋyil, sëh and tzon.

Before there was paper money, checks, credit cards or banks, a tãl•ëhꞋ served as a donation, or payment of a court-imposed fine, equal in today’s currency (2019), to approx. ₪630 or U.S. $175.

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טַלִּיתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2018.10.04]

Tzitzit with Pëtil Tëkheilët
Click to enlargeTa•litꞋ with Tzitz•itꞋ including pëtilꞋ tᵊkheilꞋët, tied Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ

fem. n. Tal•itꞋ; טלית,talit,tallit prayer mantle or shawl, incorporating tzitz•itꞋ.

The modern "Jewish" 4-cornered, poncho-like "prayer shawl", appears to conflate the fringed-kaftan worn by Jews in Biblical times with the sun-protection scarf worn in ancient Egypt, and likely throughout the ancient middle-east, that is still evident in today's Arab غُترَة (ghutrah; head scarf) held in place by an عقال‎ (agal; black goat-hair rope) — see also mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët, tō•tëphꞋët and kip•ãhꞋ.

ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf Trump NBC News 20170520
Arab Ghutrah-agal headdress (Trumps' visit to Saudi-Arabian Palace, NBC News 2017.05.20)

It is exceedingly rare today to find a tal•itꞋ having tzitz•itꞋ with a pᵊtil tᵊkheilꞋët, as required by Ta•na״khꞋ and, therefore, for Originalist-Orthodox Jews. i.e. Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ. Since I've been wearing this in Israel from 1985, it has become rabbinically acceptable for Orthodox Jews. A few have begun wearing this and the trend is growing. For Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, the tzitz•itꞋ must also be tied according to the Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ.

For a visiting non-Jew to wear a tal•itꞋ invites an undesirable misidentification on two counts.

  1. The tal•itꞋ is the principal sign by which members of the Beit ha-KᵊnësꞋët distinguish whether a visitor is a Jew or a non-Jew. This is a necessary device since it is customary to call a visiting Jew up to Tōr•ãhꞋ, but not visitors who are non-Jews.

  2. The tal•itꞋ is the principal sign by which unmarried Jewesses of the Beit ha-KᵊnësꞋët distinguish whether a visitor is a Jew or a non-Jew. This is a necessary device to discourage socializing with non-Jews that might lead to intermarriage.

Tei•mãn•imꞋ boys begin wearing a child-sized tal•itꞋ at the same time as a kip•ãhꞋ — from the time they're aware enough, and capable, to keep it on. Thus, the earliest practice does not view the tal•itꞋ as a device for young maidens to distinguish eligible Jewish bachelors from Jewish married men, as practiced today among Sᵊphãrãd•imꞋ (and also, I think, Ash•kᵊnazꞋim). This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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תַּלמִידPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Glos T, updated: 2023.09.27]

masc . n. tal•midꞋ,מתלמיד,תלמוד בבלי, תלמוד ירושלמי,talmid,Talmud pl. תַּלמִידִים (tal•mid•imꞋ), connective pl. -תַּלמִידֵי (tal•mid•eiꞋ-…); "an apprentice" in BH:; therefore a student studying under discipline—hence "disciple" rather than merely "student," as in MSH:; see I•vᵊr•itꞋ). The apprentice connotation is corroborated in the LXX Greek translation to μαθητης (matheiteis; one under discipline).

מִתְלַמֵּד (masc . n. mi•tᵊla•mædꞋ, BH: an apprentice(ship), apprenticing (oneself); hit•pa•eilꞋ pres. m.s. n.&v. of לָמַד (lã•mædꞋ; he apprenticed), MSH: he learned.

תַּלְמוּד (masc . n. Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ, popularly "Talmud"; [the] disciplined-study or learning; apprenticeship, discipleship) sets forth discussions surrounding mi•shᵊpãt•imꞋ and khuq•imꞋ, issuing from the various Bãt•eiꞋ-Din over the millennia, as they interpreted Tōr•ãhꞋ in daily applications.

There are two Ta•lᵊmūd•imꞋ:

  1. יְרוּשַׁלמִי (Yᵊru•sha•lᵊm•iꞋ): The earliest extant Mi•dᵊrãshꞋ is embedded in the Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Yᵊru•sha•lᵊm•iꞋ. As this began to be redacted c 400 C.E. in the Gã•lilꞋ, during the Gãl•utꞋ from Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim it is, more accurately, the Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Yi•sᵊr•ã•eil•iꞋ.

    The earliest extant ms., i.e. latest European assimilation, of the Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Yᵊrū•sha•lᵊm•iꞋ is the "Leiden (Netherlands) ms.", reflecting the interpretations of 1289 CE!

  2. בַּבלִי (Ba•vᵊl•iꞋ) Because the Babylonian-assimilated returnees from Babylon carried with them the imprimatur of the Babylonian King, Koresh Jr. "the Great", their Babylonian-assimilated traditions, which they had codified during their Exile in their Babylonian Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ, dominated over the more pristine Biblical Israeli ("Jerusalem") Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ (even that, like the Babylonian counterpart, reflected Assyrian, and later Hellenist, assimilation). When the returned Babylonian-assimilated Jews declared, by authority of the Babylonian King Koresh, Jr., who ruled over YᵊhudꞋãh at that time, that their Babylonian-assimilated traditions, which they codified in their Babylonian Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ, was the law, it was — literally — the (assimilated) law — Babylonian-​assimilated, not Tōr•ãhꞋ-correct!

    The earliest extant ms., i.e. latest European assimilation, of the Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ is the "Munich (Germany) ms.", reflecting the interpretations of 1382 CE!

    By convention, Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Ba•vᵊl•iꞋ is assumed unless otherwise stated.

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תָּםPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2013.05.28]

masc . n. tãm; תם, תמים, תומים, tamim, tammim pl. תַּמִּים (tam•imꞋ): whole(some), i.e., unblemished — pa•alꞋ of תָּמַם (tãm•amꞋ; wholesome, made whole, affirmatively resolved).

תֹּם, adj. & m.n. (tōm; whole, wholeness, made whole, affirmatively resolved, innocent, innocence, artless, guileless, integrity).

תֻּמִּים (tum•imꞋ, wholesomenesses or affirmative resolutions) combined with the אוּרִים (ur•imꞋ; firelights), pl. of אוּר (ur; firelight), a derivative of אוֹר (ōr; light).

In modern Hebrew, these terms have developed the connotation of naive and unsophisticated.

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טָמֵאPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.06.14]

tã•meiꞋ; טמא, טומאה, tamei, tumah contaminate or contaminated (verb or adj.)—which may thereby be transformed into a contaminant (according to Tōr•ãhꞋ criteria), de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "unclean."

fem. n. טוּמאָה, also טֻמאָה (tum•ãhꞋ) is the noun, contamination or a contaminant. This was understood among Hellenist Jews, via LXX, as αλισγημα (alisgeima; polluted).

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תָּמִידPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2007.03.07]

masc . n. Tã•midꞋ; תמיד, tamid perpetual, continual.

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תַמְכָאPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2021.06.29]

Maror 2: Tamekha — Wild Carrot Daucus gingidium
Click to enlargeתַמְכָא 

Ta•mᵊkh•ãꞋ;,tamekha Wild carrot (Daucus gingidium); type of mã•rōrꞋ.

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תַּנָּאPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2021.01.05]

masc . n. Tan•ãꞋ,תנא,Tana,Tanna (Aramaic; pl. Tan•ã•imꞋ), one who trains memorization by mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋPᵊrush•imꞋ teachers during the codification of the Mish•nãhꞋ (i.e. Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-Bᵊal Pëh, c. B.C.E. 25—200 C.E.).

The Tan•ã•imꞋ succeeded the 5 Συνέδριον ZūgꞋōt; the last pair being Tzᵊdoq•iꞋ Nã•siꞋ Sha•maiꞋ Sr. (founder of Beit Sha•maiꞋ) versus Pᵊrush•iꞋ Av Beit Din Hi•leilꞋ Sr. "the Babylonian" (founder of Beit Hi•leilꞋ).

The Tan•ã•imꞋ were succeeded by the ãmor•ãꞋyim. See also Nã•siꞋ.

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תנ"ךPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Glos T, updated: 2006.05.01]

Ta•na״khꞋ; תנ''ך, Tanakh, Tan"kh an acronym for תּוֹרָה (Tor•ãhꞋ; Instruction, not "law"), נְבִיאִים (Nᵊviy•imꞋ) and כְּתוּבִים, (Kᵊtuv•imꞋ; "writings")—the Bible.

Old Testament" is offensive because the תנ"ך has not been superseded as Christians insinuate by their use of the phrase. If anything, OT stands for "Original Testament." (See also NT.)

In all Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ works, references to Ta•na״khꞋ refer to the original Hebrew and specifically exclude Christian versions, all of which Who Are the Netzarim? (WAN) and The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋu (NHM) document are highly Hellenized (i.e. misojudaicized / Christianized through Christian redaction) and are, therefore, inaccurate, and misleading.

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תּוֹעֶהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2019.01.18]

masc . n. tō•ëhꞋ (participial adj. & n.); תועה,תעה, toeh, toah, taah Biblical term consistently referring to [one who is] straying, back-sliding, mistaking, erring, wandering, rebelling, lost; a strayer or a straying; pl. תּוֹעִים.

fem. n. תּוֹעָה pl. תּוֹעוֹת

Contrast against hitᵊbō•leilꞋ, kheit, mū•mãrꞋ, mᵊshū•mãdꞋ and כְּפִירָה.

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טָרֵףPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2018.06.24]

tã•reiphꞋ (adj.) —טרף,tareiph,tareif,taref,treif freshly-picked, plucked, torn-off or ripped-off; a positive attribute relative to vegetables—especially leafy vegetables, fruits and herbs; but a negative attribute relative to a slain animal and meat.

By halakhic extension, tã•reiphꞋ includes meat from animals that are halakhically unfit—organically or otherwise, including meat from an animal that hasn't been inspected and slaughtered according to Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ.

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תַּרגוּםPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. Tar•gumꞋ; תרגום, Targum translation, implying the Aramaic translations of the (Hebrew) Ta•na״khꞋ or the Aramaic portions of Ta•na״khꞋ. The Tar•jumꞋ par excellence is that of Onkelos, and is considered so authoritative that the Tei•mãn•imꞋ require its reading in parallel with the Hebrew reading of Tōr•ãhꞋ. Tōr•ãhꞋ is read first in Hebrew and then a boy responds by reading the Tar•jumꞋ. The Tar•jumꞋ is, therefore, the primary resource for interpreting enigmatic phrases in the Hebrew Ta•na״khꞋ.

Tar•gumꞋ Onkelos (Aquila), Aramaic translation of the תּוֹרָה — The provenance of Tar•gumꞋ Onkelos dates to the late 1st — early 2nd century C.E. However, the tradition of the "convert" author of Tar•gumꞋ Onkelos seems to be [a] based on a misreading of "Aquila" and [b] erroneously ascribed to an anonymous Aramaic translation — perhaps even that of ËꞋzᵊr•ã (BCE 409-359).

Tar•gumꞋ Yo•nã•tãnꞋ, Aramaic translation of the Nᵊviy•imꞋ — The provenance of Tar•gumꞋ Yo•nã•tãnꞋ is unclear. Passages of Tar•gumꞋ Yo•nã•tãnꞋ are quoted in the Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Ba•vᵊl•iꞋ. The consensus of historians seem to regard Yo•nã•tãnꞋ as a misreading of an abbreviation for Yᵊru•shã•laꞋyim, and a Tar•gumꞋ likely developed over a period of time, perhaps originating with ËꞋzᵊr•ã (BCE 409-359).

Both Tar•gum•imꞋ were edited, early in the 4th century, by Ba•vᵊl•iꞋ Âmor•ãꞋ and head of a yᵊshiv•ãhꞋ in Pumbadita, Bã•vëlꞋ, Rav Yo•seiphꞋ Bar Khiya (d. 333 C.E.).

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תַּשְׁלִיךְPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2023.08.30] 

Ta•shᵊlikhꞋ;תשליך,Tashlikh,Tashelikh to fling something; 2nd pers. m.s. hiph•ilꞋ imper. of שׁלך. (Note: this term is unrelated to שָׁלַח.)

Ta•shᵊlikhꞋ is the name of a superfluous, extra-Scriptural, European REFORM ritual of some Ultra-Orthodox Jews. They recite:"May You fling…" — a ritual of emptying one's (already empty) pockets (of pretend a•veir•ōtꞋ) and pretending to fling them in the sea, a lake or stream. This is based on commemorating the metaphoric (else anthropomorphic) flinging, by י‑‑ה, of real a•veir•ōtꞋ into the sea (Mikh•ãhꞋ 7.19).

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Proto-Sinaitic shinProto-Sinaitic shinProto-Sinaitic reshProto-Sinaitic tav (Ta•rᵊshishꞋ) [Glos_T, updated: 2023.08.31]

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeEastern Mediterranean coastlands from western Anatolia  in the north to Egypt; including the 4 Pulossian (Philistine/​Palestina;) colonies

𐤕𐤓𐤔𐤔‎; modern Hebrew תַרְשִׁ֑ישׁ or תַרְשִׁ֑שׁ:Tarshish

Contrary to the most straightforward logic, Arts-degreed Indiana Jones-genre, science-incompetent, art history adventurers ventured that Egyptian references to "Tursha of the sea" can only refer to an island, not to Tarsus of the southern coast of western Anatolia (Turkey). More competent recent analysts  reject the silly notion by which earlier art historians presumed to overrule the identification by Josephus  et al. Thus, despite the modern-era art-adventurers' chronological and geographical messes that scientists continue to sort out, the Ta•rᵊshish•imꞋ can once again be recognized as the masterful maritime arm of the Kit•imꞋ, shipping fire-stone (pyrite), silver, etc. (transported overland from the central region), trading products, learning and language with other peoples along their sea routes, throughout the Mediterranean.

  1. 3rd recorded  descendant of NōꞋakh (via Proto-Sinaitic tavProto-Sinaitic peiProto-Sinaitic yod and Middle-Semitic Hebrew nunMiddle-Semitic Hebrew vavMiddle-Semitic Hebrew yod;

  2. Ancient city 19 km (12 mi) up the Cydnus river from the southern Mediterranean coast of modern western Turkey;

  3. Silver—today, modern Turkey has the 7th largest silver mine in the world. This region, 520 km (320 mi) overland NW of Ta•rᵊshishꞋ in central West Turkey, would have been the top source, and practical monopoly, of silver (which was more valuable than gold in ancient Egypt) in the ancient Mediterranean Basin.  Ta•rᵊshishꞋ was famous for shipping silver to Tzūr

  4. The seafaring "Sea People" of Ta•rᵊshishꞋ (later Hellenized to θαρσος, capital of Cilicia; 

  5. The most famous ancient seafaring Ta•rᵊshishꞋ-Class cargo ship, designed and built by the Ta•rᵊshish•imꞋ master naval architects; famous for shipping fire-stone ("gold" pyrite) and silver while cross-pollinating learning, language and culture throughout the Mediterranean Basin;

  6. The "Ta•rᵊshishꞋ Stone" of Zᵊvūl•ūnꞋ in the KhōꞋshën Mi•shᵊpãtꞋ, identified by Josephus  and others of the 1st-century CE as "gold-stone" (χρυσόλιθος—pyrite fire-stone more

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תַּבְנִיתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2013.05.07]

fem. n. ta•vᵊn•itꞋ; תבנית, tavnit the design of a construction or its structure (as contrasted with the physical construction or structure itself); physical pattern or paradigm — verbal n. of בָּנָה (bãn•ãhꞋ; he built).

The Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ designed by Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ (43, et al.) was not only never built, but (as Artscroll "Yechezkel" demonstrates is physically and geographically impossible to fit within Israel) was the תַּבְנִית for how the Second Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ was supposed to be, but wasn't, understood—a Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ in the spiritual realm.

According to Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ's תַּבְנִית, the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ was never intended to come down to physical and geographical Israel. Rather, physical Israel—the kindred living in the land of geographical Israel—was intended to ascend regularly to the spiritual Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ, interceding on behalf of all humankind as the buffer between the י‑‑ה of Israel and the rest of humankind; the prophesied realm of Ko•han•imꞋ (Shᵊm•otꞋ 19.5-6).

Additionally, this interpretation, alone, overcomes the endless contradictions deriving from interpretations stuck in a physical domain—the Moslem cemetary immediately in front of the East Gate, prophecies of eternal, invulnerable and inviolable nature, and the like.

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תְּהִלָּה Pronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.05.01]

irreg. n.. n. Tᵊhil•ãhꞋ, pl. תְּהִלִּים (Tᵊhil•imꞋ); תהלה, תהילה, תהלים, tehilah, t'hilah, tehilim, t'hilim fames, renowns, laudations, glories. Tᵊhil•imꞋ (plural) derives from הִלֵּל (hi•leil; Hellenized to "Hallel"). In the plural, this is the name of the book attributed mostly to Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh (de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Psalms").

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תֵּימָנִיPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Glos T, updated: 2020.06.26]

Tei•mãn•iꞋ, fem. תֵּימָנִית (Tei•mãn•itꞋ), pl. תֵּימָנִים (Tei•mãn•imꞋ); תימנים,תימן,Teimanim,Temenim Yemenite Jew.

Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ is regarded by most scholars as the least contaminated by external factors in the world. (See, for example, A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Music (New York: Schocken, 1967), pp. 22-23, 67.)

Hence, Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ is the most pristine representation on the planet (followed by other Jews of Middle Eastern origin: Iraqi, the closest; then Iranian and other Sᵊpha•rad•imꞋ; loc. cit.) of the pristine Judaism of Har Sin•aiꞋ that MoshꞋëh knew.

The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ were dormant from 135 C.E. until the 1970s. Until they were ousted by gentile Roman "bishops" that year, the only evidence of dispute between the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ and Pᵊrush•imꞋ, other than condemning sanctimony, appears to have been with the Roman-collaborating, Boethusian-Herodian "Pᵊrush•imꞋ" loathed by the mainstream Pᵊrush•imꞋ.

The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ, lacking our own halakhic tradition since 135 C.E., fill in the lucanae with the most pristine halakhic tradition, least compromised by extra-Judaic influences since Har Sin•aiꞋ, on the planet—Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ. This stands in stark contrast to the Christian tradition of filling in lucanae with post-135 C.E. gentile, Hellenist-Roman mythology and idolatry.

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תֵּלPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. teil, תל, teil, tel compound form תֶּל (tël-; ruins-mound of…); man-made hill or mound covering the remains of an ancient settlement.

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תֵּבָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. teiv•ãhꞋ; תבה, תיבה, teivah box (also, by extension, chest, house, barge, houseboat; Hellenized to "ark").

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תֵּבֵלPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2008.04.17]

fem. n. teiꞋveil; תבל, teiveil, tevel inhabited or civilized world, planet earth.

Note: distinguish from masc . n. תֶּבֶל (tëvꞋël) 1. unnatural contamination or foreign infusion into the natural order. 2. a spice or seasoning — the Aramaic pl., תַּבְלִין, is conventionally preferred instead.

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תְּכֵלֶתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2019.03.06]

Tzitzit with Petil Tekhelet, tied Nosakh Teimani
Click to enlargeTa•litꞋ with Tzitz•itꞋ with pëtilꞋ tᵊkheilꞋët, tied Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ
Khilazon - Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)
Click to enlargeKhilazon — Murex trunculus (encyclopedie-universelle.com)

fem. n. TᵊkheilꞋët; תכלת,tekheilet,t'kheilet,techeilet,t'cheilet,teheilet,t'heilet,tekhelet,t'khelet,techelet,t'chelet,tehelet,t'helet a shade of indigo similar to denim or turquoise. While rabbis argue that Ta•ᵊmudꞋ / Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ stipulates that TᵊkheilꞋët can only be made from the Murex trunculus snail, this is inaccurate.

What Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ condemned was the fraudulent selling of the far cheaper indigo dye made from the indigo plant, which could not be distinguished from the far more expensive dye made from the Murex trunculus, as the latter and at the latter's price. There is not a word in Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ against non-wealthy Jews substituting indigo dye — nor, therefore, any justification for the rabbinic subtraction of the requirement of the tᵊkheilꞋët cord from Tōr•ãhꞋ. Indeed, the only 1st century tzitz•itꞋ that archeologists have found — of a soldier of Bar-KokhꞋvã under the rabbinic supervision of RabꞋi A•qiꞋvã — was dyed with dye made from the indigo plant, not from the Murex trunculus snail!

פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת (pᵊtil tᵊkheilꞋët) is the thread of indigo-color, which Tōr•ãhꞋ commands must be included in the tzitzꞋit.

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טְחִינָה [Glos T, updated: 2007.02.26]

Tekhina (sesame seed paste)

fem. n. TᵊkhinꞋãh טחינה,tekhinah,techinah,tehinah,t'khinah,t'chinah,t'hinah — a thick sesame seed-based dip. Basic recipe (refine over time):

  • 1 cup pure tᵊkhina (sesame paste)
  • 2 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 1/2 cup water
  • dash of hot red pepper
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • juice from 2 lemons
  • 3 tbs. Israeli extra-virgin olive oil
  • A few coriander or oregano leaves for garnish

Mix tᵊkhina, garlic, water, pepper, salt and lemon juice until you get smooth paste. Add water if tᵊkhina is too thick.

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תְּנוּפָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2019.08.15]

fem. n.tᵊnūph•ãhꞋ;תנופה,tenuphah a sacrifice or offering that is swayed, brandished or waved (verbal n. of הֵנִיף, hiph•ilꞋ of נוּף). Contrast with tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ (lifted-up, presented).

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תְּפִלָּה Pronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2016.01.03]

fem. n. tᵊphil•ãhꞋ, pl. תְּפִלוֹת (Tᵊphil•ōtꞋ); תפלה,תפילה,תפלות,תפילות,tephilah,tephilot,t'philah,t'philot,tefillah,tefillot,t'fillah,t'fillot prayer, from פִּלֵּל, which has 2 meanings:‭‬1. "to judge, arbitrate" or "invoke as a judge" and 2. "to pray."

The verb is always found in the hit•pa•eilꞋ: הִתְפַּלֵּל (hit•pa•leilꞋ; he prayed).

Klein suggests a possible association of the second meaning, to pray, with the verb נָפַל. However, the first and second meanings can easily be seen as one interrelated theme:

  1. the first (judging or arbitrating) being to determine a verdict and

  2. the second (praying) being to "invoke as a judge" in struggling to reach a determination or verdict; i.e., struggling to understand and ascertain direction from י‑‑ה, from His Tōr•ãhꞋ — i.e., the revealed רְצוֹן י‑‑ה — as contrasted against asking for something from our own will (our own eyes and our own heart).

This may expose the deeper meaning of hit•pa•eilꞋ — and the deeper meaning of serving י‑‑ה.

To pray is the secondary meaning of פִּלֵּל. The primary meaning is to make a determination, to render a verdict, implying consequent to careful deliberation. Accordingly, for תְּפִלָּה to be successful, one must pray compatibly with, after having given careful deliberation to, Tōr•ãhꞋ and Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ (vide Mish•leiꞋ ShlomꞋoh 28.9).

However, תְּפִלָּה, at this point, is still unfinished and unproductive. Like a warrior preparing himself or herself before going into battle, תְּפִלָּה is the spiritual warriors' pre-combat, self-preparation ritual. A soldier going through the rituals of pre-battle self-preparation has not yet done any fighting at all. Such a soldier is "all parade and no fight" — a useless pretense of a soldier. As cowboys used to say about their imitators, "all hat and no cattle." The same is true of תְּפִלָּה. The תְּפִלָּה isn't finished until the one making תְּפִלָּה is struggling his or her utmost to make it happen. The old adage is potently true: don't bother to pray for deliverance from the storm (again, Mish•leiꞋ ShlomꞋoh 28.9) unless you're rowing for shore. If it's not worth your utmost efforts to make it happen, then you have no right to pray for it. If you're not actively making your utmost efforts to make it happen, then boasting that you are praying, or will pray, for it would be hypocritical.

One who claims to keep Tōr•ãhꞋ yet makes תְּפִלָּה without doing one's utmost to carry it (which complies with Tōr•ãhꞋ) out and make it happen contravenes Mish•leiꞋ ShlomꞋoh 28.9 — a vain prayer!

Don't be like the Ultra-Orthodox / Kha•reid•iꞋ hypocrites — all ceremonial costume-ritual having strayed from Tōr•ãhꞋ. See The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyãhꞋu (NHM, in English) note 21.21.1.

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טֹטָפֹת (modern תְּפִלִּין)Pronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2020.09.06]

"…and they shall be לְטֹטָפֹת between your eyes"
Egypt seshed and uræus Tut-Ankh-Amun
Egyptian seshed headband-crown, which featured the uræus pendant centerpiece. The seshed held the khat scarf headdress in place; similar to that found on the mask of Tut-ankh-Amun. See clarifying fabric model.

fem. n. Tō•tãph•ōtꞋ (pl.), sing. טוֹטֶפֶתתפלין,תפילין,טוטפת,טוטפות,tephilin,t'philin,tefillin,t'fillin,totaphot,totephet,uraeus — ancient Egyptian royal gold uræus (cobra) centerpiece featured on the Egyptian seshed (gold, diadem-crown head­band), which held the mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët in place in wind, while riding a horse, in a chariot, etc.

Unlike later European sunbeam-radiating pointed crowns of the distant future and alien to Middle East cultures, ancient Middle Eastern royalty wore gold, tiara-like seshed-crowns featuring icon-pendants on the forehead, between the eyes. These icon-pendants represented the Divine Powers of their gods believed to be controlled by the wearer. This royal, gold, Middle-Eastern crown served as a living marquee to display the national religious priestly icon(s).

The purpose of the seshed-crown, aside from holding the scarf headdress in place, was to spotlight the uræus miniature god-idol of WadꞋjet ("Eye of HōrꞋus in hieroglyph) on the Par•ohꞋ's forehead, auguring its protection and "divine authority" (later claimed by European royalty as well).

irreg. n.. n. תְּפִלִּין — Directly from Har Sin•aiꞋ

For the Hebrews leaving Egypt, however, such idolatry was an anathema. Displacing the idolatrous Egyptian uræus, lᵊ‑ha•vᵊdilꞋ, a new-design, gold טוֹטֶפֶת was fashioned featuring a Tzitz framing a gold plaque, in which was— instead — engraved (in proto-Sinaitic Hebrew letters) the Name of י‑‑ה, to hold the new mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët of the Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ in place.

The rest of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, to keep their mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët in place on their head, right from Har Sin•aiꞋ fashioned their טוֹטֶפֶת from the same material as the SeiphꞋër Tor•ãhꞋkã•sheirꞋ leather. Displacing the idolatrous Egyptian uræus, the Hebrews' version טוֹטֶפֶת featured 4 pouches, 1 pouch for each of the 4 mandated passag­es. These passages contain and spotlight the Protection, Divine Authority and Tōr•ãhꞋ (Life's "Instruction" Manual) of י‑‑ה. The product? תְּפִלִּין!

Assimilation & Reforms During Babylonian Exile
ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf Trump NBC News 20170520
Ghutrah-agal Arab head scarf (Trump visiting Saudi palace; NBC News 2017.05.20)

These kã•sheirꞋ leather טוֹטֶפֶת, i.e. תְּפִלִּין, were worn by Israelis-Jews as an integral part of every­day attire through BCE 9th-7th centuries when pre-​rabbinic Babylonian "Sages," assimilating to Bab­ylonian cul­ture and idol­atry dur­ing their Exile, reformed DërꞋëkh י‑‑ה to rele­gate the wearing of תְּפִלִּין only during tᵊphil•ãhꞋ.

(In an additional, consistent and corroborating assimilation and reform, the Babylonian "Sages" similarly displaced Scripturally-ordained spring-season New Year with the idolatrous Babylonian autumnal New Year, perverting autumn's Scriptural Yōm Tᵊrū•ãhꞋ to the idolatrous Babylonian New Year (Hebrew: Rōsh ha-Shãn•ãhꞋ).

Vestiges of the ancient Middle-Eastern טוֹטֶפֶת that survive today include the Arabic عقال‎ (agal; black goat-hair rope) to keep their غُترَة (ghutrah; head scarf) in place.

To protect the head from chafing under the טוֹטֶפֶת, a buffering undercap was worn. This undercap has survived the millennia as today's kip•ãhꞋ and Arabic طاقية‎ (taqiyah; dome). Arabs still wear the undercap where one would expect — under the head scarf (all held in place by the טוֹטֶפֶת). The undercap seems to have simply been left on indoors, like an undergarment for the head. Religious significance continued to reside in the טוֹטֶפֶת, securing the head scarf (today's ta•litꞋ) in place, with the undercap (today's kip•ãhꞋ) underneath.

irreg. n.. n. תְּפִלִּין — 1st-2nd Centuries CE — Bar-KōkhꞋvã

Since the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ, muting the use of the gold טוֹטֶפֶת by the Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ, the term תְּפִלִּין became the more relevant term, rather than טוֹטֶפֶת.

tephilin Qumran actual size
Bar-KokhꞋvã Tᵊphil•inꞋ
≈Actual Size

Archaeologist יִגָּאֵל יָדִין discovered that the head תְּפִלִּין used by Bar-KokhꞋvã's men, of the 1st—2nd centuries C.E., included, in one of its scrolls, the עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים. As a backlash to create greater difference from Christian practice, the rabbis instituted a reform, eliminating this passage of Scripture from the scroll.

Thus, from Har Sin•aiꞋ (c. B.C.E. ) to Bar-KōkhꞋvã (135 C.E.), there are no historically documented changes in the תְּפִלִּין. Aside from the Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ, תְּפִלִּין was the טוֹטֶפֶת of Am Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, holding their mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët (assimilated and reformed to a ta•litꞋ) in place, with a kip•ãhꞋ underneath as an undercap.

Click to enlargeMy Har Sin•aiꞋ-faithful תְּפִלִּין

(Enlarge fully for actual size)

Because todays Orthodox rabbis rigidly limit sō•phᵊr•imꞋ suppliers of scrolls and makers of tᵊphil•inꞋ to these larger boxes, Jews today can only obtain:

  1. these larger boxes — an Ultra-Orthodox rabbinic reform (first documented by RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa) breaking from the original style documented by Bar-KōkhꞋvã's men,
  2. 1 box on the weak arm and 1 box containing 4 compartments (rather than the original Biblical 4 boxes — an "Ultra-Orthodox" rabbinic assimilation and reform from the original ancient practice),
  3. strapped atop the fore­head (another "Ultra-Orthodox" rabbinic assimilation and reform from the original practice and explicit Biblical specification: "between your eyes"), and
  4. again unlike the original Biblical practice (another "Ultra-Orthodox" rabbinic assimilation and reform departure from the original Israeli everyday dress code), wearing limited to regular weekday Tᵊhil•ōtꞋ Sha•khar•itꞋ.

If you believe that Mōsh•ëhꞋ and ancient Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ have an afterlife, who would you have recognize you in your afterlife: Mōsh•ëhꞋ or the modern, Ottoman-ordained Ra•bãn•utꞋ? Because they are intractably contradictory on many more issues than these. This is only one of a number of assimilations through the millennia that need to be restored. more

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תְּפוּצָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. Tᵊphutz•ãhꞋ; תפוצה, tephutzah, tephutsah, tefutzah, tefutsah, t'phutzah, t'phutsah, t'futzah, t'futsah the Διασπορα (Diaspora; the dispersion, the dispersed), Jewish communities outside of ËrꞋëtz Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ. See also Gãl•utꞋ.

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תְּרָפִיםPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2022.11.12]

teraph Adapa merman fish Dagon ichthus mitre
Click to enlargeTã•rãphꞋ: Dãg•ōnꞋ Adapa (priest in fish vestment; origin of ikhꞋthūs/​pope’s mitre)
Təraph: I*shtar-E*aster g*oddess, ca. BCE 1,000
Tã•rãphꞋ: Ishtar (ca. BCE 1,000)

masc . n. Tᵊrãph•imꞋ; תרפים,תרף,teraphim,terafim,t'raphim,t'rafim plural of תָּרָף (tã•rãphꞋ); any charm(s), talisman(s), amulet(s) or religious holy item(s) used to feel watched or protected, for good luck (healing, divination, etc.) and, thus, considered priceless (Sho•phᵊt•imꞋ 17.5; 18.17).

Tᵊrãph•imꞋ were usually small, portable, figurine idols similar to the figurines of Yësh"u, "angels" and "cherubs" treasured by Christians today (see bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 31.34; but sometimes life-size, see Shᵊmu•eilꞋ ÂlꞋëph 19.13).

See also Shᵊmu•eilꞋ ÂlꞋëph 15.23; Mᵊlãkh•imꞋ Beit 23.24; Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 21.26 and Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 10.2.

According to Klein, the term Tᵊrãph•imꞋ is of uncertain origin—like its probable stem, תֹּֽרֶף, meaning:PBH

  • vagina & breasts; the essence (universally symbolized by milk, see Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 23.19; 34.26 & Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 14.21) שָׁד of feminine and fertility; by extension, profit, success and prosperity, and
  • the essentials of life's decisions, especially regarding the making of contracts (cutting of bᵊrit•ōtꞋ)—determined by using tᵊrãph•imꞋ for animist divination שֵׁד in the same way as modern Christians practice "speaking in (or interpreting) tongues," astrology, divining rods, ouija boards, tarot cards, crystal balls, etc.

By extension, תֹּֽרֶף refers to the essence and essentials of a contract (i.e., bᵊrit) in contrast to its template—"that part of a document which makes it binding." (Relative to a contract, the שֵׁד is the details.)

It appears likely that תֹּֽרֶף is a cognate of תֳּרֶף, which Klein defines as a poetic variant of תְּרוּפָה, which we know derives from רִפֵּא—for the pagans a function believed to be performed by their tᵊrãph•imꞋ.

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תְּקִיעָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. TᵊqiyꞋãh; תקיעה, teqiyah, t'qiyah, tekiyah, t'kiyah a single monotonic fermata yelp, "Attention!" alarm note, of about 3 seconds duration, begun and concluded by a quick, staccato glissando warble. Originally, this alarm was sounded either by voice or blown on the sho•pharꞋ; parallels voice calls still used in the wilderness today and bugle calls of the Cavalry in the Old West. 

תְּקִיעָה גְדוֹלָה — an elongated tᵊqiyꞋãh (as long as trumpeter can make it, at least 3x the usual length) "Attack!" call (and final blast in the liturgy).

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תְּרוּעָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. TᵊruꞋãh; תרועה, teruah, t'ruah a 3-glissando warble, tremolo, fermata battle cry of about 2 seconds duration; either by voice (war cry) or blown on the sho•pharꞋ, parallels the native American war cries, Confederate rebel yells and bugle calls of the Cavalry in the Old West. 

Among Jews of 4th century C.E. Europe, the authentic ancient sound of tᵊruꞋãh became shrouded in controversy. European Jews thought that tᵊruꞋãh was a glissando warble-initiated, series of 9 monotonic staccato notes sounded urgently (quickly, typically totaling about 4 seconds). Yet, confusion arose because some, correctly, held that tᵊruꞋãh was the original 3-glissando warble tremolo blast. Thus, tᵊruꞋãh evolved, and was subsequently redefined in Europe, to 9 monotonic staccato notes in quick succession — while the original tᵊruꞋãh is today called shᵊvãr•imꞋ. As a result of this well-documented controversy, both versions were adopted, to be sounded in unbroken succession (the mislabeled, correct sound, first), whereas in ancient Biblical Israel, only what is today called shᵊvãr•imꞋ was heard—and was known as tᵊruꞋãh.

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תְּרוּמָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2018.12.13]

fem. n. tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ תרומה,תרומות,terumah,t'rumah,Terumot,T'rumot(presented/​presentation sacrifice-offering; lit. "lifted-up"); pl. תְּרוּמוֹת. Contrast with tᵊnūph•ãhꞋ (brandished or waved).

Since the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ -Rish•onꞋ — because of the departure of the Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ, which never returned (rendering acceptable sacrifices forever impossible), with the accompanying losses of the Mi•zᵊbeiꞋakh and Har ha-BaꞋyit, tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ, a priori, typically refers today specifically to the tᵊrūm•ãtꞋ khal•ãhꞋ set aside for kō•han•imꞋmore

The name of the 6th Tractate of the Order זְרָעִים, in the Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ, To•sëphꞋᵊtã, and Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Yᵊrū•sha•lᵊm•iꞋ (lacking in Ta•lᵊmūdꞋ Bã•vᵊl•iꞋ) detailing the laws of tᵊrūm•ãhꞋ to be given to the kō•heinꞋ in accordance with Tōr•ãhꞋ..

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תְּשׁוּבָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2019.05.13]


fem. n. tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ; תשובה,teshuvah,t'shuvah answer, reply, response—pop. but inaccurately "repentance." Derived, along with its cognate שׁוּבָה (shuv•ãhꞋ; a return, a coming back), from שׁוּב (shuv; to return, he returned). To make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ is to respond with a return to Tōr•ãhꞋ. This was distorted, via LXX, among Roman Hellenists (the original, post-135 C.E.,Paul-Christians) to ἐπιστρέφουσιν.

Contrary to popular notions among goy•imꞋ, י--ה does not confer ki•purꞋ unconditionally; He requires a demonstrated change in one's life practice—(re)turning to Tōr•ãhꞋ—as a prerequisite. As stipulated in the Shᵊm•aꞋ, one is required to keep all of the mi•tzᵊw•otꞋ Tōr•ãhꞋ to one's utmost—viz., "with all one's heart, nëphꞋësh and might [lit. "very"]"—"for the purpose of extending your days and the days of your children… like the days of the heavens above the earth" (i.e., eternal life).

Scripture stipulates two "substages" of tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ (Ency. Jud., 14.73):

  1. Negative: ceasing a•veir•otꞋ of Tōr•ãhꞋ (Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 33.15; Tᵊhil•imꞋ 15; 24.4)

  2. Positive: proactively practicing the positive mi•tzᵊw•otꞋ (Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 1.17; 58.5ff; Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 7.3; 26.13; •mosꞋ 5.14-15; Tᵊhil•imꞋ 34.15-16; 37.27)—and wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 5.20-26: י‑‑ה requires making restitution, plus 20%, not merely for damages to sacred property or the mi•tzᵊwōtꞋ, but also including making restitution, plus 20%, to any wronged human beings or their property! י‑‑ה doesn’t provide ki•pūrꞋ for transgressions or damages against people unless this restitution, plus 20%, has been made to the injured persons!

Tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ is a matter of free choice. Not everyone chooses tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ (and י--ה never overrides one's free will that He bestowed). Thus, only a "remnant" will make tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ. "In the teaching of both [Ho•sheiꞋa] and [Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu], on the other hand, the call to turn back is never abandoned. When [Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu] despairs of man's capability of self-renewal, he postulates that [Ël•oh•imꞋ] will provide "a new heart" that will overcome [a•veir•ãhꞋ] and merit eternal [ki•purꞋ] (31.32-33; 32.39-40; cf. [Dᵊvãr•imꞋ] 30.6; [Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ] 36.26.27)" (Ency. Jud., 14.74).

The traditional phrase חָזַר בִּתשׁוּבָה (khã•zarꞋ bi-tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ) means "return (to Tōr•ãhꞋ-observance) in response."

In recent decades, in which 90+% of Jews have become estranged from rabbinic views and serious and sincere questions have gone unanswered by the rabbis, the retort from modern questioning Jews has become חָזַר בִּשְׁאֵלָה (khã•zarꞋ bi-shᵊ•eil•ãhꞋ; return in question).

One who returns to Tōr•ãhꞋ-observance is called a baꞋal tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ.

Tᵊshuv•ãhꞋ, the "return" to Tōr•ãhꞋ-observance, is only possible for one who previously kept Tōr•ãhꞋ; i.e. a Jew (or geir), who is from a Tōr•ãhꞋ-observant environment and, so, is "returning." (Non-Jews must make ni•lᵊwëhꞋ; cf. The Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhꞋu (NHM) 4.17.1 note.)

It's as non-sensical for Goy•imꞋ to speak of a "return" to the Tōr•ãhꞋ they've never known as it is for a gentile to speak of being "born again"—implying, in Judaic literature, "as a Jew." As in the 1st century, Goy•imꞋ can interface in the Jewish community only by

  1. conversion recognized by legitimate rabbis and the State of Israel (being born a spiritual Jew a first time), or

  2. recognition by a Beit-Din as a non-Jewish geir ("Yᵊrei-ha-Sheim)—grafted on, not "born again" like one already born a Jew)

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טְבֶרְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2024.07.06] 

Yam Kinneret
Click to enlargeTᵊvërꞋyãh, Yãm Ki•nërꞋët

fem. TᵊvërꞋyãhTeveryah—Hebrew transliteration of Latin name of city on SW shore of Yãm Ki•nërꞋët, contra-Tōr•ãhꞋ venerating Roman Tiberius  Julius Caesar Augustus.

Teveryah & north shore of Yam Kineret
Click to enlarge TᵊvërꞋyãh (Tiberius) & north shore of Yãm Ki•nërꞋët

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טְבִילָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

miqweh, Har Noph, Yerushalayim
Click to enlargeמִקְוֶה

fem. n. tᵊvil•ãhꞋ;טבילה,tevilah,t'vilah immersion according to halakhic criteria in a miq•wëhꞋ. See also mi•tᵊbãlꞋ.

In the first century C.E., one who practiced and advocated טְבִילָה (tᵊvil•ãhꞋ), including one who supervised, witnessed and attested to the validity of tᵊvil•ãhꞋ, was called "ha-Mat•bilꞋ" (the מַטבִּיל [Mat•bilꞋ]). (The immersant cannot be touching anything, even clothes or jewelry. The Judaic practice has always been grossly different from the Christian misunderstanding and subsequent perversion of it.)

Today, Jewish men aren't required to have a supervising witness and the woman who supervises tᵊvil•ãhꞋ for Jewish women has an entirely unrelated title. Thus, the term Mat•bilꞋ has no accurate and correct parallel today.

Archeology has confirmed the halakhic requirements of the miq•wëhꞋ.

For tᵊvil•ãhꞋ to be valid, the Mat•bilꞋ checked (and today's women's attendant checks), inter alia, that nothing—not even a ring, hairpin, dirt under fingernails, or the like—is touching the body (much less another person) during immersion, as well as to ensure that the entire body, including all hair, is completely enveloped in water. This means that tᵊvil•ãhꞋ can only be performed entirely nude. Modesty, of course, must also be maintained.

To ensure all halakhic requirements are satisfied so that a tᵊvil•ãhꞋ is valid, the מַטבִּיל (and today's women's attendant), who only instructs, inspects and witnesses, must be thoroughly familiar with halakhic requirements.

For numerous reasons, no "baptism" performed by Christians, depicted in their movies, etc.—and a public event in front of an audience—qualifies as tᵊvil•ãhꞋ.

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TR [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

Textus Receptus; "Received Text" (1624 C.E.). The Greek text rendered from the earlier English—'King James Version'—of 1611 C.E. by the Anglican Church of England.

TR occasionally diverges from all early source mss. TR is also known as the Elzevir text.

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תִּכּלַאלPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2008.03.31]


Ti•klalꞋ; תכלאל, Tiklal "everything in it." The name of the si•durꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ.

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תִּ?ון עוֹלָםPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2008.10.26]

Ti•?onꞋ O•lãmꞋ תכון עולם, Tikon Olam, Tikkon Olam, Tikun Olam, Tikkun Olam, Tikon Teivel, Tikon Tevel, Tiqon Olam, Tiqun Olam, Tiqon Teivel (? of [the] o•lãmꞋ).

Scriptural, Echoed in the Tei•mãn•iꞋ Si•durꞋ:

תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל (Ti•konꞋ TeiꞋveil; may the civilized-world be measured out, meted out, apportioned, calculated, weighed out)—relative to Hav•dãl•ãhꞋ; i.e., to adjudicate-mi•shᵊpãtꞋ differentiating sheep from sheep, rams and billygoats" (NHM 25.32). The meaning of regulate, arrange or fix is Modern Hebrew according to Klein.

This phrase, echoed in the Tei•mãn•iꞋ si•durꞋ (Yom Tov Mu•sãphꞋ), derives from the ordained order (first all of hã-ÂꞋrëtz, "then" the Goy•imꞋ) set forth in Tᵊhil•imꞋ 93.1; 96.10 & Di•vᵊr•eiꞋ ha-Yãm•imꞋ ÂlꞋëph 16.30:

"Tremble before Him all hã-ÂꞋrëtz,
אַף-תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל בַּל תִּמּוֹט

  • The modern meaning of this verbal noun of the pi•eilꞋ is planning and designing.
  • The Biblical meaning of the pi•eilꞋ was "he apportioned." (See I•yovꞋ 28.25; Tᵊhil•imꞋ 75.4 & Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 40.12 & 13.) Thus, the phrase employing the verbal noun meant, "apportioning the world." The implication is that we prepare the world for the messianic era by marshalling not only our abilities but by apportioning "the world"—our property and material resources—to Him, i.e., to His service. י‑‑ה apportioned the world to humankind. Now each person is expected, in this way, portion by portion, to reciprocate; apportioning the world back to Him (i.e., His service), returning the world to its Creator.

Tei•mãn•iꞋ Si•durꞋ (•leinꞋu):

לְתַכֶּן עוֹלָם (lᵊ-ta•kënꞋ O•lãmꞋ; to measure out, mete out, apportion, calculate, weigh out [or "for measuring out, meting out, apportioning, calculating, weighing out"] an o•lãmꞋ),

"…to quickly see the Opulence of Your Strength, causing idols to pass away from hã-ÂꞋrëtz and the faux-g*ods to be absolutely excised—לְתַכֶּן עוֹלָם in the Kingdom of Shad•aiꞋ…"

Doh!Here, Ash•kᵊnazꞋim sidurim read: לְתַקֵּן עוֹלָם (lᵊ-ta•qeinꞋ o•lãmꞋ; to repair an o•lãmꞋ), popularly understood as "repairing [or reforming] the world!!!

Ash•kᵊnazꞋi, Sᵊphãr•ãd•iꞋ, Qabãl•ãhꞋ and non-Orthodox:

תִּקּוּן עוֹלָם (ti•qunꞋ O•lãmꞋ; repairing the world), popularly understood as human (Jewish Kabbalist or Humanist-Reform) efforts to "reform" the world—which contradicts Tᵊhil•imꞋ 3.9; et al. & 118.8-9!!!

The closest Scriptural mention is Qo•hëlꞋët 7.13: "Who can לְתַקֵּן (lᵊ-ta•qeinꞋ; repair) what He has twisted?"

Pivotal to One's Orientation vis-à-vis the Messianic Era!!!

Are humans reforming the world or are Tōr•ãhꞋ-keepers, with their nᵊphãsh•otꞋ, establishing the stones of a spiritual Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shelishit in the heavens? Do we look in this world or in hã-o•lãmꞋ ha-bãꞋ? Surprisingly, many look to peace and all of the fulfillments in this physical world when all of the prophecies describe the spiritual hã-o•lãmꞋ ha-bãꞋ in which ha-Sheim dwells.

European לְתַקֵּן? Or Biblical (Tei•mãn•iꞋ and Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ) לְתַכֶּן?

The Biblically-compatible phrase is תִּכּוּן עוֹלָם (ti•kunꞋ o•lãmꞋ; apportioning the world—i.e., separating the sheep from the goats).

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"Times of the Gentiles" [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

A Gentile & NT concept; (Lk. 21.20-28 & Rev. 11.1-2). Though not recognized by Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ and other Orthodox Jews as authoritative, these passages derive from Dã•ni•eilꞋ 7.25-27.

The "Times of the Gentiles" began with the banishment of Jews—and usurpation of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Pã•qidꞋ—from Yᵊru•shã•layꞋim in 135 C.E. and ended with the re-establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 (and of the Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Pã•qidꞋ in 1985). The celestial sign "in the stars" of Lk. 21.25 was fulfilled in 1994 by the collision of the bride-like comet, Shoemaker-Levy 9 , with the Mã•shiꞋakh-"star" (TzëdꞋëq). For further information, reference Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' (ABNC).

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תִנֻחָמוּ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִםPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2009.10.11]

Ti•nu•khãm•uꞋ min ha-Shã•mãꞋyim; תנחמו, תינוחמו, tinukhamu min ha-shamayim May you be comforted from the Heavens (viz., י‑‑ה); condolence.

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תִּקְוָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2012.12.22]

fem. n. TiꞋqᵊwãh תקוה, tiqwah, tiqweh, tiqveh, tiqvah, tikwah, tikweh, tikveh, tikvah (Biblical pronunciation, Israelis pronounce this TiꞋqᵊvãh), from קוה — to twist, stretch or strain; by extension, to await tensely or expectantly, to hope under stress or strain; i.e., to hope under stress or strain. Such hope always implies having done all that the individual can. Thus, this is hope based on, and deriving from, action; yet, which surpasses one's own ability or control.more info

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טִיּוּלPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2008.04.17]

masc . n. Ti•yulꞋ; טיול, tiyul, tiul a tour or hike.

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Teti [Glos_T, updated: 2022.11.16]

Egyptian hierarchy (historyonthenet)
Click to enlargeEgyptian hierarchy (historyonthenet)

Tëti;ṯꜣty,Tety,Tjati,Tyaty,Tyati the lone regent of the Par•ōhꞋ (popularly "vizier"). The Tëti ruled over all Egyptian Sëmërs, priests and spëts according to the policies set down by the Par•ōhꞋ.

Hieroglyphs are read starting from the direction in which any living beings in the glyph are facing. This hieroglyph depicts a ṯꜣty (Tëti): G47 (ṯꜣ, nestling chick or duckling, symbol for the Egyprian vizier) + X1 (t, a single loaf of bread) over Z1 (1, a singular-symbol) + A1 (i/y, a seated man, masc. symbol).

ṯꜣty: A1(y) seated man + X1(t) bread loaf + Z1 (1) + G47(ṯꜣ) nestling chick or duckling
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תּוֹדָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2020.04.09]

tōd•ãhꞋ;תודה,todah confessing-thankfulness, thankfully-confessing; popularly "Thanks!" Verbal noun formed from the hiph•ilꞋ of ידה (to confess-thanks, to thankfully-confess); also the associated animal sacrifice offering.

הִתְוֵדָּה, he thankfully-confessed.

While the constructs distinguish certain applications, there is no separate and distinct Hebrew term distinguishing "thank" from "confess". It was a single, combined theme.

See also cognate YᵊhūdꞋãh and synonyms bᵊrãkh•ãhꞋ and qãrᵊbãnꞋ more

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תוׂלַעַתּPronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2024.03.15] 

Tolaat shani (crimson worm Coccus ilicis)
Click to enlargeתּוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי, Coccus ilicis; a Coccidae (scale-insect), not a worm, common on oaks wherever they grow; mistranslated in English as "worm"; English should be "Crimson Scale-insect."

fem. n. to•la•atꞋ,tolaat,worm,crimson,scarlet the Kermes (previously Coccus) ilicis, categorized by ancients as a worm, is classified in modern taxonomy as a scale insect, common on oak trees. Kermes ilicis is the scale-insect that ancients processed to make shaꞋni dye.

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תּוֹעֵבָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

fem. n. tō•eiv•ãhꞋ, תועבה, תועבות, toeivah, toeivot pl. תּוֹעֵבוֹת (to•eiv•ōtꞋ); an abomination and abhorrence unspeakably disgusting and revolting. more info

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תּוֹלְדֹתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2012.11.01]

fem. n. (pl.) tō•lᵊd•ōtꞋ; תולדת, תולדות, toldot, toledot, tol'dot "1 history, chronology. 2 generations. 3 annals, chronicles. 4 consequences, outcome." (A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language For Readers of English; p. 694). In Biblical times, this was synonymous with yo•khas•inꞋ (the public genealogical registers — the genealogical "Tree of Life") — cf. also Atonement In the Biblical 'New Covenant' Live-Link (ABNC Live-Link)).

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תּוֹרָהPronunciation Table    Hear it! [Glos T, updated: 2020.07.15]

Seipher Torah Teimani
Tei•mãn•iꞋ SeiphꞋër Tōr•ãhꞋ

fem. n. תּוֹרָה (Tōr•ãhꞋ);תורה שבכתב, תורה שבעל פה,תורה שבעל-פה,תורה שבכתב,Torah she-bikhtav,Torah she-bikh'tav,Torah she-bichtav,Torah she-bich'tav,Torah she-beal peh,Torah she-b'al peh,Torah she-baal peh,moreh,mori,Torah she-bikhtav,Torah she-bikh'tav,Torah she-bichtav,Torah she-bich'tav,Torah she-beal peh,Torah she-b'al peh,Torah she-baal peh,Torah she-beal peih,Torah she-b'al peih,Torah she-baal peih The "Instructing", is the hiph•ilꞋ verbal noun of הוֹרָה, a cognate of מוֹרֶה.

The Christian miso-Judaic (de-Judaizing) assumption of an "Old" or "Testament" implies Displacement Theology and is deeply offensive to any knowledgeable, self-respecting Jew.

Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 17.10-11, echoed by RibꞋi Yᵊhō•shūꞋa (The Nᵊtzãrim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyãhu 23.1-8) and further corroborated by Dead Sea Scroll 4Q MMT, have always demonstrated conclusively that Tōr•ãhꞋ has ALWAYS consisted of two elements:

  1. תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב; the first five books of Ta•na״khꞋ, and

  2. תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל-פֶּה; instituted no later than the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ -Rish•ōnꞋ, from which the Shᵊkhin•ãhꞋ departed, never again to reappear in a physical placeBiblical (i.e. pre-rabbinic) Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ.


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תּוֹסֶפתָּאPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2021.01.25]

fem. n. Tō•sëphꞋtã,תוספתא,תספתא,tosephta,tosefta additional, supplementary, complementary — the subset of Proto-Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ Bã•ra•yᵊt•ōtꞋ that corresponds to the 6 Sei•dër•im/​60 Ma•sëkhꞋōt of the Mi•shᵊn•ãhꞋ Pᵊrush•imꞋ.

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תּפֶׁת Pronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2023.12.10]

Tophet, Gei-Hinom & Nakhal Qidron
Click to enlarge TōꞋphët, Gei-Hi•nomꞋ & NaꞋkhal Qi•dᵊrōnꞋ at southern tip of Ir Dã•widꞋ, Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim.

tōꞋphët;tophet ancient Kᵊna•an•imꞋ site of local fire-sacrifice of firstborn children to MōꞋlëkh.

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תּוֹשָׁבPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2007.03.08]

masc . n. Tō•shãvꞋ; תושב, toshav settler, resident, inhabitant.

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טֻמְטוּם Pronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2023.11.14]

tūmᵊtūmꞋ;toomtoom indeterminate gender, intersex.

See related:

  1. anᵊdᵊrō•gyn•iyꞋ

  2. ayᵊlōn•itꞋ

  3. ish

  4. ish•ãhꞋ

  5. nᵊqæv•âhꞋ

  6. sâ•risꞋ

  7. zâ•khârꞋ

  8. Further details in my article in Israel Jews News: The Bathroom Wars

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צַדִּיקPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2018.07.09]

masc . n. Tza•diqꞋ (adj. & m.n.), pl. צַדִּיקִים (Tza•diq•imꞋ); הצדיקים, צדיקות, Tzadiq, tzadiqut, Tsadiq, tzaddik, tsaddik one who exhibits the quality of צַדִּיקוּת (below). Tza•diq•imꞋ are Hellenized by Christian translators to "saint" idols.

When used with the specifier as a title, הַצַדִּיק ( ha-Tza•diqꞋ; "the just") identifies a person as the leader of a branch of pre-Dark Ages Kha•sid•imꞋ. The honorific title of Ya•a•qovꞋ "ha-Tza•diqꞋ" (Hellenized to "James the Just") Bën-Dã•widꞋ, first Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ Pã•qidꞋ and brother of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bën-Dã•widꞋ, is well documented.

fem. n.צַדִּיקוּת (tza•diq•ūtꞋ) — just, as defined by computational-logic based parsing — that rejects logical fallacies and confirms proper logic by computer, free of human bias, producing proper Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ/​Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bᵊ-al-pëhꞋ of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bi-khᵊtãvꞋ; i.e. truth-based, logic-parsed justness — justice.

Contrast this with "the law" (as a product of lawyers and rabbis) and their legal definition of "justice" they equate to conformance with "the law" — even when the result contradicts truth. Many legal precedents were based on scientific misunderstandings. Yet, the legal principle of stare decisis requires that those often glaringly ignorant precedents be promulgated ad nauseam and the resulting legal compass reset permanently off-course in a futile effort to justify the initial error.

In those limited instances in which legal process diverges from truth and logic, then everything deriving from that erroneous premise, as fruit from the poisonous tree, is ex falso quodlibet! But rabbis cower at the prospect of turning their backs on Dark Ages traditions to face reality, despite the long string of successes, of a myriad of nations, over many millennia, in direct proportion to their basing their legal system on logic-driven (rather than greed/​arrogance-driven) application of various parts of Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bi-khᵊtãvꞋ! Dark Ages ignorance, excess and arrogance are the problems. Logic is the solution to rein-in arrogance and excess.

Truth — parsed by computational logic (no longer the traditional philosophical pseudo-logic) — must displace the consequent cascade of increasingly divergent strayings. Instances in which precedents were based on error are relatively limited. The bulk of law and Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ/​Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bᵊ-al-pëhꞋ are unaffected. Ergo, this will not throw the entire corpus of the law — nor the entirety of Ha•lãkh•ãhꞋ/​Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bᵊ-al-pëhꞋ — into turmoil. Indeed, it will confirm the reasoning of Mōsh•ëhꞋ, the Nᵊviy•imꞋ and the wisest historical rabbis while eliminating cancerous error — and this reveals the True Tōr•ãhꞋ shë-bi-khᵊtãvꞋ. But all legal process must be open to questioning even the original mortal premise for validity as defined by the latest knowledge of science and logic — the Laws of י‑‑ה. We must not become prisoners of the Dark Ages mindset!

Secular law among a myriad of nations has long revered logical reasoning and would, accordingly, suffer only relatively minor tremors. In the religious sphere where a Dark Ages mindset, arrogance, xenophobia, racism and casuistry have determined interpretations and ever widening fences, however, there is another side-benefit: tolerance. Computational logic imposes its own limits, clearly restricting itself to well-defined limits. This amounts to a significant retracting of fanatically and cultishly overextended rabbinic claws where, for example, today's Ultra-Orthodox wildly overstate multiple fences and extreme opinions that, in fact, have no basis in the logical application of Tōr•ãhꞋ. Where logic refuses to support interpretations, Authority refuses to apply. Humility and recognition of one's own fallibility, imposed by that logical limitation, then ensures that tolerance of other views that may be correct fills that space.

Tragically, under present legal process, only if technical differences can be cited, the impact of the so-called precedent may be slightly blunted. Even then, the original error isn't acknowledged and set right. Thus, over time, errors in the law grow ever more numerous, ever more onerous, ever more malignant and ever more ensconced in an ever more historically distant, scientifically ignorant, mortal origin. Consequently, truth and justice are routinely sacrificed on the altar of stare decisis and, everyday in the rumor, speculation & smear media that now passes for "news", the vitriol borne of multiplying injustices seethes around us! Elitists are above the law!

צַדִּיקוּת, in contrast to rabbinic and "lawyer" casuistries of "the law", is a concept that can never be corrupted nor changed.

Thus, "the law", whether umbilically tied to "secular" stare decisis-driven or "religious" tradition-driven false premises, is in dire need of a legal concept of הָעוֹלָם הִשְׁתַּנָּה (mundus mutatus) to accelerate the process of acknowledging, correcting and displacing legal precedents that have since proven logically incoherent relative to the current logical understanding of science.

See also cognates tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ, Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ and TzëdꞋëq.

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צָנוּעַPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2014.12.21]

tzã•nuꞋa; צנוע, tzanua, tsanua meek, mild; i.e., moderate, prudent, judicious, circumspect.

Originally the antonym of a haughty man, this term has been distorted by Ultra-Orthodox rabbis, to deflect away from their own arrogant and abusive treatment of "lesser Jews" (even including צָנוּעַ Orthodox, whom Medievalist-Europeanist Ultra-Orthodox periodically, and often publicly, dismiss as goy•imꞋ) and other humans. The Ultra-Orthodox rabbis redirected the term to mean "modest" dress for women – as they apply it narrowly, rigorously and boastfully (opposite of צָנוּעַ), thereby deflecting the term to no longer indict them for their haughtiness.

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צָרַעַתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2013.04.04]

fem. n. tzã•raꞋ•at צרעת, tzaraat, tzara'at, tsaraat, tsara'at — "For hundreds of years, the popular translation of צָרַעַת has been 'leprosy.' " This is understated. צָרַעַת was rendered as λεπρα in LXX, perhaps three centuries before the destruction of the Beit-ha-Mi•qᵊdãshꞋ ha-Shein•iꞋ.

"R' Hirsch demonstrates at length and conclusively that '[equating צָרַעַת to leprosy is] completely erroneous. Very briefly, he shows that the symptoms of צָרַעַת, as outlined in [this week's portion ], are far different than those of leprosy" ("Vayikra [sic]," Artscroll, ibid.).

This is corroborated in the Encarta '95 Encyclopedia. "In both the Old [sic] and New [sic] Testaments the name leprosy is given to a number of physical conditions unrelated to leprosy. This Hebrew term was later translated as lepros, from which came the word leprosy.

"The earliest symptom is often anesthesia (loss of sensation) in a patch of skin. Because of damage to the nerves, muscles may become paralyzed. The loss of sensation that accompanies the destruction of nerves may result in unnoticed injuries. These may result in secondary infections, the replacement of healthy tissue with scar tissue, and the destruction or absorption of bone.

"The classic disfigurements of leprosy, such as loss of extremities from bone damage or the so-called leonine facies, a lionlike appearance with thick nodulous skin, are signs of advanced disease, now preventable with early treatment" (Microsoft (R) Encarta Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright ( c ) 1994 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation).

QuackerySome have fancied—dangling castles from a string contrary to all evidence—that מְּצֹרָע is a contraction of מוֹצִיא רַע. However, this clearly wasn't the original connotation because the מְּצֹרָע was well-recognized as having a physical—and natural, not miraculous—malady called צָרַעַת. But if צָרַעַת wasn't leprosy, we must investigate what it was. Then we will have defined the מְּצֹרָע, the person who had צָרַעַת.

By modern scientific standards, the descriptions of צָרַעַת indicate more than one type of affliction. Another of the descriptions, strangely afflicting both skin and walls alike, appears to describe a seasonal fungal, flaky-skin rash that peaks primarily during early spring and late autumn, corresponding with the waxing and waning of dark-gray fungus outbreaks on the inner surface of exterior walls of buildings and other damp spots; thriving during the cooler, wet winters and drying up during the dry heat of the summer months. The same diagnosis and treatment, for both infected walls and skin, demonstrate that the ancients assumed the same infection for both; apparently associating its exchange from walls to skin with the apparent disappearance of the dark-gray fungus from the walls corresponding with the appearance of the skin rash, and vice-versa.


צָרַעַת derives from the verb צֹרַע, which, in turn, parallels the Arabic "sara'a, (= he threw to the ground, threw down), sar` (= epilepsy), [and Old South Arabic] צרע (= to throw down, humiliate)" (Klein's, p.557). This malady periodically threw the victim to the ground, was often triggered by flickering light — as from a fire — and, if not rescued quickly from the fire, resulted in burn injuries that can resemble the symptoms of leprosy, yet from an entirely unrelated cause. Photos are too gruesome to include here, but readers who wish can Google photos of leprosy and burn victims.

What malady throws its victim to the ground, can be triggered by the flickering of a fire and, consequently, often resulted in the victim falling into a fire and receiving burn injuries that can be confused with leprosy? Moreover, notice that "the laws of this צָרַעַת are identical to those of burns in wa-Yi•qᵊr•ãꞋ 13.24-28" (Artscroll 'Vayikra', ibid.).

Yam Kinneret

What malady is triggered by the reflection of the sun on ripples of water, and throws the victim into the water? What malady can, by throwing the victim to the ground, inflict broken limbs, resulting in lameness, and paralysis? Virtually all of the symptoms of leprosy can be imitated by epilepsy. From this, צָרַעַת very clearly seems to include epilepsy. Probably, leprosy and epilepsy were considered different stages, or variations of, the same illness.

Translators and commentators unfamiliar with the Middle East and similar climates could not grasp how to interpret הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי as צָרַעַת in wa-Yi•qᵊrã 13.15. "Living flesh" or "healthy flesh" is neither contaminated nor a contaminant.

However, there is a parallel phrase in Hebrew, מַיִם חַיִּים, and we know that this means "moving water" in contrast to still water. Thus, all other meanings having been debunked, it seems, a priori, that הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי refers to "the moving flesh." Maturing larvae deposited by a biting fly can cause movement under the skin. We find "moving flesh"—that is contaminated—when a biting fly deposits an egg under the flesh and it begins to mature and move under the flesh, causing "moving flesh."

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צָבָאPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2020.08.06]

Tzahal soldiers praying
IDF soldiers praying

masc . n. Tzã•vãꞋ;צבא,tzava,tsava,tzevaot,ts'vaot, force; especially an armed military force, army. Klein also includes in its definition the terms war and warfare. The connective form (same Hebrew spelling) is pronounced tzᵊvã-… (army of…). The plural is צְבָאוֹת (tzᵊvã•otꞋ). The plural connective (same Hebrew spelling as the plural) is pronounced tzi•vᵊ•ōtꞋ-… (armies of…).

Contrast this with, and distinguish it from חַיִל, a cognate of חַיָּל.

These terms are all popularly distorted in Christian Bibles as "host" (pl. "hosts") when, PC aside, they mean, and should be understood, not as supernatural "angels," but as an armed force of warriors, i.e. an army.

צה"ל (TzaꞋhal) is the acronym for the צְבָא הֲגַנָּה לְיִשׂרָאֵל (TzᵊvaꞋ Haganah Lᵊ-Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ; Army of Defense for Israel), i.e. the Israel Defense Forces—the IDF.

Ha•gan•ãhꞋ derives from the same root verb as mã•geinꞋ in Mã•geinꞋ Dã•widꞋ—shield and, by extension, defense (popularly mistranslated as "star") of Dã•widꞋ.

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צְדָקָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2018.07.04]

fem. n. tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ;צדקה, tzedaqah, tsedaqah, tz'daqah, ts'daqah, tzedakah, tsedakah, tz'dakah, ts'dakah an act of justness/​justice as defined by Tōr•ãhꞋ. Compare and contrast to (also f.n.) tza•diq•ūtꞋ.

This cannot be rendered "righteousness" because Christians assume righteousness to be equivalent to right-ness in the sense of "what is right in their own eyes" or according to their Καινής Διαθήκης, rather than as defined by Tōr•ãhꞋ.

According to Tōr•ãhꞋ, charity is required; ergo, the poor are due such assistance. Therefore, it is not accurately charity, but justice. Thus, the meaning of צְדָקָה has eroded from its Biblical meaning, in a case of selective 'tunnel vision,' to charity.

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צֶדֶקPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2024.02.28]

masc . n. TzëdꞋëq (m.n.);צדק,tzedeq,tsedeq,tzeddeq,tseddeq,tzedek,tsedek,tzeddek,tseddekone who embodies tza•diq•ūtꞋ, Christianized to "righteousness."; also the fifth planet from the sun. (The goy•imꞋ call it Jupiter).

TzëdꞋëq has been known from antiquity as a metonym for the Mã•shiꞋakh. The "star" (as it was then thought to be) that has represented the Mã•shiꞋakh since ancient astronomy has always, for this reason, been called TzëdꞋëq — the Mã•shiꞋakh-"star" — in Hebrew.)

TzëdꞋëq was also the planet impacted by the "heavenly-angelic-bride" (symbolic of the Bride of ha-SheimAm Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ); the 1994 string of comets that was the greatest phenomenon in the recorded history of the solar system — even surpassing the phenomena that signaled the birth of RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa (cf. The Nᵊtzãrim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyãhu). How could this far more stupendous celestial phenomena, then, not herald the dawn of the Messianic Era? (Cf. also link MalꞋki-TzëdꞋëq and our note "Shoemaker-Levy" in our newsletter archives.)

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צְדוֹקִיםPronunciation Table   Hear it! [Glos T, updated: 2018.08.27]

masc . n. Tzᵊdōq•imꞋ, צדוקים,Sadduces,Tzedoqim,Tsedoqim,Tz'doqim,Ts'doqim,Tzedokim,Tsedokim,Tz'dokim,Ts'dokim,Tzedokkim,Tsedokkim,Tz'dokkim,Ts'dokkim,Tzadoqim,Zadoqites,Tzadok,Zaddok ((pl. of צְדוֹקִי); one of the three major 1st century Judean sects. In extra-Judaic texts, this is routinely Hellenized to Σαδδουκαῖος. English translations further sanitize some instances of the already-Hellenized term, gentilizing it, instead, to "saints" in order to make specific passages sound like they were originally written to gentile (originally Roman/​Italian ethnicity) Hellenist Christians instead of Jews.

"According to most scholars" this term originally referred to Bᵊn-Tzã•dōqꞋ — a son of Tzã•dōqꞋ, Kō•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dōlꞋ during the reign of Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh.

During the reign of Hellenist Syrian King Antiochus Epiphanes (BCE 165), Hellenized

These were primarily the Hellenist Ko•han•imꞋ and the wealthy aristocratic class of Hellenist Jews — both of whom collaborated with the Hellenist Roman occupiers. more info

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צֶמַחPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2019.02.05]

masc . n. TzëꞋmakh, צמח,Tzemakh,Tsemakh,Tzemach,Tsemach pl. צְמָחִים (tzᵊmãkh•imꞋ); a scion, sprout or seedling. The verb stem, צָמַח, has evolved in MSH: to mean "plant" generally (n. & v.). In BH:, it was sometimes used in the sense of, and in concert with, complementary synonyms expressing רוֹמֵם or הֵקִים by י‑‑ה — and in this sense the rabbinic Sages have long recognized this as a metonym for the Mã•shiꞋakh.

There are twelve instances of צֶמַח in Ta•na״khꞋ.

Sprouts & Metonyms Other Than The Mã•shiꞋakh
Yam ha-Melakh, S'dom, Tzoar, Khevron
Click to enlargeYãm ha-MëlꞋakh, Sᵊdōm, TzōꞋar, Khë•vᵊr•onꞋ
Sedom-Amorah (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE2350 Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com
Click to enlargeSᵊdōm-Amōrãh (Bab edh-Dhra) destroyed ca BCE 2350 (Todd Bolen-BiblePlaces.com)
Har Sedom looking NW to Nakhal Tzohar
Click to enlargeHar Sᵊdōm looking NW to NaꞋkhal Tzō•harꞋ
  1. bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ 19.24, 28 — [י‑‑ה] overturned these cities [Sᵊdōm and AōmōrōãhꞋ], with all of הכִּכָּר and with all of the residents of the cities, וְצֶמַח הָאֲדָמָה.

    These cities were located on the southern shore of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh. Despite a number of severe earthquakes, oft-heralded "climatic changes" date from eons before relatively recent (geologically and climatically) Biblical times. Probably only sparse and isolated wild herbs grew there. Even with some primitive irrigation, collecting waters from nearby mountain run-offs, of the seven species, perhaps, the residents may have cultivated small plots of barley and wheat. Accordingly, צֶמַח in this verse likely means wild herbs and grasses (i.e., barley and wheat).

  2. Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 16.7 — To increase כְּצֶמַח of the field…

    This clearly refers to wild herbs and grasses (grains).

  3. Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 17.9 — (referring, metaphorically, to Tzid•qi•yãꞋhu, mëlꞋëkh Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ, as הַגֶּפֶן; pã•suqꞋ 7) Will י‑‑ה not cut off … all of the freshly-plucked leaves of צִמְחָהּ she shall wither-up…

  4. Yᵊkhëz•qeilꞋ 17.10 — (referring, metaphorically, to Tzid•qi•yãꞋhu, mëlꞋëkh Yᵊhud•ãhꞋ, as הַגֶּפֶן; pã•suqꞋ 7) upon the garden-beds of צִמְחָהּ she shall wither-up…

  5. Ho•sheiꞋa 8.7 — צֶמַח that doesn't make flour

  6. Tᵊhil•imꞋ 65.11 — … צִמְחָהּ You bless

"The TzëmꞋakh", Metonym For The Mã•shiꞋakh
  1. Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 4.2 — On that day there shall be a צֶמַח י‑‑ה. (נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו, in Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 5.7, refers back to his use of צֶמַח as the Mã•shiꞋakh in 4.2.)

  2. Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 61.11 — For like the ãꞋrëtz puts forth צִמְחָהּ, and like a garden תַצְמִיחַ her seeds, so A•don•ãiꞋ ha-SheimꞋ יַצְמִיחַ tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ and praise נֶגֶד all of ha-goy•imꞋ.

  3. Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 23.5 — Behold, the days are coming, declares י‑‑ה, when I will set up for Dã•widꞋ a צֶמַח Tza•diqꞋ; then a king shall reign, act judiciously and make mi•shᵊpãtꞋ and tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ in the ãꞋrëtz.

  4. Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 33.15 — In those days and in that hour, אַצְמִיחַ for Dã•widꞋ a צֶמַח tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ; then he shall make mi•shᵊpãtꞋ and tzᵊdãq•ãhꞋ in the ãꞋrëtz.

  5. Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 3.8 — Shᵊm•aꞋ prithee, Yᵊho•shuꞋa ha-Ko•heinꞋ Gã•dolꞋ — [both] you and your companions who are sitting before you — because they are men of מוֹפֵת, for behold, I am bringing My servant, the צֶמַח.

  6. Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 6.12 — Say to [Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bën-YᵊhōtzãdãqꞋ ha-Kō•heinꞋ Gã•dōlꞋ (pã•sūqꞋ 11)], Thus said י‑‑ה of armies saying, Behold, a man whose name is צֶמַח; ūmitakhꞋᵊtãvꞋ he יִצְמָח and construct the Hei•khãlꞋ י‑‑ה.

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צְנִיעוּתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2021.08.10]

fem. n. Tzᵊniy•ūtꞋ; צניעות,tzeniyut,tseniyut,tz'niyut,ts'niyut,tzeniut,tseniut,tzniut,tsniut Biblical meaning in Ta•na״khꞋ: moderate, restrained, benevolent (i.e. charitable, inclusive, a pleasant disposition, friendly and welcoming); level-headed, cool-headed, prudent. צְנִיעוּת in Ta•na״khꞋ applied primarily to one's disposition; not to assimilated European Puritan prudery in women's dress as corrupted (and misdirected, evading responsibility) by many contemporary Ultra-Orthodox rabbis; see also Sons of Light vs Sons of the Dark Age (2013.01.20)

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צְפַנְיָהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

Tzᵊphan•yãhꞋ; צפניה, Zephaniah, Tzephanyah, Tsephanyah, Tz'phanyah, Ts'phanyah, Tzefanyah, Tsefanyah, Tz'fanyah, Ts'fanyah, Tzephaniah, Tsephaniah, Tz'phaniah, Ts'phaniah, Tzefaniah, Tsefaniah, Tz'faniah, Ts'faniah י--ה has cached, squirreled-away, encrypted; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Zephaniah.'

Tzᵊphan•yãhꞋ is the ninth book of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•imꞋ of Ta•na״khꞋ.

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בֵּית צִיְדָהPronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2024.07.06] 

Click to enlargetxt

Bæt Tzi•yᵊd•ãhꞋ;Bethsaida "House(hold) of Fishers", from צִיֵּד):Tzidonians a provision-gathering (i.e. fishing, hunting and trading); sort of like "Fisherman's Wharf".

In Hebrew, this is often denoted by the suffix וׂן□ (-ōn), a locative suffix, which indicates a place or location. See, for example, Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋ.

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Proto-Sinaitic nunProto-Sinaitic daletProto-Sinaitic yodProto-Sinaitic tzadi (modern צִיְדֹֽן)Pronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2023.01.14]

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeEastern Mediterranean Basin cBCE 3000–​

Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋ (Semitic endonym from צִיֵּד):Tzidonians a provision-gathering (i.e. fishing and maritime trading) port; the ancient port city of the Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an commercial fishing fleet; corrupted to modern Sidon (City), of the Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a; Semitic citydom. Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋ was the son of Kᵊna•anꞋ; exonym "Phoenicia(ns)".

In Hebrew, the suffix וׂן□ (-ōn) is a locative suffix, which indicates a place or location. It is often translated as "house of" or "place of" (e.g., see also Bæt Tzi•yᵊd•ãhꞋ).

Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋ was later subsumed by one of its own citydoms: Tzūr, which became the combined citydom of endonym Tzūr (combined exonym: "Phoenicia(ns)").

Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋ (City) later became the ancient boundary between (southern) Zᵊvūl•ūnꞋ and the (northern) Kit•imꞋ more

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צִיץPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2019.01.24]

Click to enlargeTō•tëphꞋët with Tzitz of Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ in which was mounted the gold plaque engraved — in Proto-Sinaitic, not modern, Hebrew:

"Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew ה‑‑Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew יProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ל Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew שProto-Sinaitic Hebrew דProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ק"

(קֹדֶשׁ לַי‑‑ה).

masc . n. Tzitz; ציץ, Tzitz "blossom" — the blossom in which was mounted the gold plaque engraved in Proto-Sinaitic, not modern, Hebrew (much less English):

"Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew ה‑‑Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew יProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ל Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew שProto-Sinaitic Hebrew דProto-Sinaitic Hebrew ק"

(קֹדֶשׁ לַי‑‑ה)

Displacing the idolatrous neshed & uræus of Egypt, this was the centerpiece of the Tō•tëphꞋ­ët of the Ko•heinꞋ ha-Jã•dolꞋ, which held his mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët in place (Shᵊm•ōtꞋ 28.36-38; 39.30-31).

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צִיצִיתPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2017.10.19]

cBCE841 Yeihu (Jehu) Shalmaneser III Black Obelisk
Click to enlargeObelisk relief c BCE 841YeiꞋhu Bën-Yᵊhō•shã•phãtꞋ, MëlꞋëkh Yi•sᵊr•ã•­eilꞋ, offers trib­ute to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III. Earliest extant witness of ancient Israeli attire (with fringes), grooming (hair and beard length/​style) — and royal mi•tzᵊnëphꞋët or mi•gᵊba•atꞋ.

fem. n. Tzitz•itꞋ; ציצית, ציציות, tzitzit, tsitsit, zizit tassel, blossom, bloom and, by extension, nipple (by extension, teat or breast); Hellenized to "fringe" (plural tzitz•i•ōtꞋ).

A wall relief in the palace of Assyrian King Shalmaneser III, c BCE 841, is the earliest depiction of pre-Exilic, i.e. mostly pre-assimilated and the most pristine depiction known, Yᵊhud•imꞋ. This wall relief shows two Yᵊhud•imꞋ, on the right, behind YeiꞋhu Bën-Yᵊhō•shã•phãtꞋ, MëlꞋëkh Yi•sᵊr•ã•­eilꞋ (kneeling before King Shalmaneser III, offering a gift with his request for a treaty of alliance with Ma•rᵊdukhꞋ-ian Syria). So far as known today, his two fellow delegates wear proper Sciptural fringed garments and headdress (see kip•ãhꞋ) with tᵊphil•inꞋ wound around their upper left forearms (box at the elbow).

Tzitzit with Petil Tekhelet, tied Nosakh Teimani
Click to enlargeTa•litꞋ with Tzitz•itꞋ with pëtilꞋ tᵊkheilꞋët, tied Nō•sakhꞋ Tei•mãn•iꞋ

Today, tzitz•itꞋ is also used to denote, more generally, the ArꞋbã Kᵊnãph•ōtꞋ — either the usual four-cornered garment ArꞋbã Kᵊnãph•otꞋ proper, which is worn all during the day, or to the tal•itꞋ. The ArꞋbã Kᵊnãph•otꞋ is generally worn under a shirt, although the more zealous wear a woolen outer version (especially in colder weather). According to bᵊ-Mid•barꞋ 15:37-38, one doesn't fulfill the Mitz•wãhꞋ unless the tzitz•i•otꞋ includes a פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת (pᵊtil tᵊkheilꞋët).

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צִיּוֹןPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2024.07.06]

Har Tziyon (Hellenized to Mt. Zion)
Har Tzi•yōnꞋ (Hellenized to Mt. Zion)
Old City
Ir Dã•widꞋ

masc . n. Tzi•yōnꞋ; ציון,Tziyon,Tzion,ZionHellenized and Anglicized to 'Zion.' Contrary to modern Jewish wishful imagination, in Hebrew the suffix וׂן□ (-ōn) is a locative suffix, which indicates a place or location. (It is often translated as "house of" or "place of".) צִיּוֹן (Tzi•yōnꞋ) derived from צִיָּה, dryness, drought, desert. Thus, צִיּוֹן means "Desert Home".

Har Tzi•yōnꞋ ("Mt. Zion") is located south of the "Old City" (bottom of the map, slightly west of center).

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צוֹםPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2007.12.19]


masc . n. Tzōm; צום, צם, tzom, tsom fasting, a fast.

Not-so-observant Jews often wish "Tzōm kal" (an easy fast). However, this is incompatible with Yᵊsha•yãhꞋu 58.1-12. The Tōr•ãhꞋ-compatible greeting is, rather, "צוֹם מוֹעִיל!" See also Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋu 31.13 and Zᵊkhar•yãhꞋ 8.19.

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צֶלַעPronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2024.05.22] 

fem. n. tzëlꞋatzela—rib, as an element of a primary load bearing skeletal structure; element of a rib-cage that gives an animal, ship or building (especially its outer girding, floors, arches & vaults) the primary structural robustness and integrity of its form.

Even in the earliest times, human (and animal) corpses from animal attacks or battles provided the biological basics of skeletal structures. This knowledge was reflected in the skeletal structures of the earliest huts and boats. Terrestrial and marine architecture began with the construction of sturdy rib-cages. While advances in terrestrial and naval skeletal "ribbing" (frames) architecture were constrained each by progress in the other, advances in these technologies were also spurred and inspired by parallel advances in the construction architecture of their complement technology.

Although ancient peoples weren't aware of the microscopic biological science, or chromosomal and DNA chemistry of animal mating relative to offspring, many were ranchers or ranch hands who well understood how to produce desirable results after years working on a ranch and seeing the results of their experiments and labors. Ta•na״khꞋ evidences the high level of ancient (BCE 1900) breeding knowledge of ranchers, is demonstrated by Ya•a•qōv (bᵊReish•itꞋ 30.28–43). To believe that people lacked such knowledge concerning humans is silly. Thus, the use of צֶלַע in bᵊReish•itꞋ, as in other passages (e.g., instructions to attach rings to the צֶלַע of the A•rōnꞋ ha-Bᵊrit, rather than referring generally to a "side", likely referred to some type of "rib" skeletal reinforcing construction within the box at each point where the rings attached.

It must have seemed obvious to ancient peoples that the Creator would have used this same approach to produce higher vertebrates—including humans.

The human feminine element is the X-chromosome, present in both male and female humans. The male element is the Y-chromosome—present only in males. Normally, any offspring will receive one sex chromosome from each parent. In normal births, since the mother only has 2 X-chromosomes, her contribution is one healthy X-chromosome. The father, by contrast, has one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome. Thus, while the biological selection mechanism (which chromosome is contributed in a given insemination) is still not fully understood, the father contributes either the X-chromosome (producing a male offspring) or the Y-chromosome (producing a female offspring). The entire DNA of each human, reflecting both parents, is therein encoded in the DNA helix of each of these two parental chromosomes.

Interestingly, tzëlꞋa is feminine noun! Thus, bᵊReish•itꞋ 2.21-23 describes taking this feminine element from ã•dãmꞋ (humankind), from which the Creator produced khaū•ãhꞋ. Ancient peoples likely inferred some unknown structure inherent to humankind that was mirrored, somewhat altered, in women. How this evolutionary event occurred still isn't clear to scientists but, increasingly, the plausability of multiple expressions of initial humans, in various locations, is conceded. Which came first, the male or the female human, is still debated. khaū•ãhꞋ (human-womankind), emerged millennia before the first male human. However, the first offspring of a human female with a human male who could produce both sexes of human offspring seems to have been what took the millennia—waiting on the male contribution of the X-chromosome to offspring that would produce bigender-reproducing human offspring (rather than the rare, solely male-infertile, humans like himself, lacking an X-chromosome to contribute; thus producing only female offspring).

On this topic, stemming the global hysteria and chaos rampant throughout human society in recent years surrounding trends in gender, questioning traditional sexual mores (steeped in the ancient (i.e. religious) principle of women as livestock under property law) and the sharp U-turn on traditional societal gender roles  requires intelligent folk free themselves from flags and banners of the social media echo-chambers of the chattering class to, instead, base opinions and decisions on a quick read of a simple and short Mt. Sinai Hospital Medical page. Today's world desparately needs to be apprised of several atypical conditions that burst several universally-accepted folklore beliefs about gender. Neither those holding to traditional beliefs nor alphabet-soup groups with banners is entirely correct—or entirely wrong! Both POVs have different points that must be acknowledged (and different errors that must be abandoned). Easily update your knowledge to the latest science (and cite) this Mt. Sinai Hospital page: DSD (Differences of sex development).
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צֹאןPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2010.05.20]

שֶׂה = a kã•sheirꞋ Bovidae
eiz - goat Nubian buck kidAyil - ramparah adumah - Red Heifer (American Brangus, 2012 Grand Champion, Houston)

masc . n. Tzōn; צאן, tzon, tson a flock or herd of sëh (kã•sheirꞋ Bovidae livestock; viz., sheep, goats or cattle). Compare & contrast with aꞋyil, tal•ëhꞋ, këvꞋës, eiz and pãr•ãhꞋ.

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הַצּוֹפֶהPronunciation Table [Glos T, updated: 2006.04.27]

masc . n. ha-Tzoph•ëhꞋ; הצופה, הצפה, Tzopheh, Tsopheh, Tzofeh, Tsofeh the observer, spectator. This is the newspaper of מפד"ל (Maph•da"lꞋ) an acronym for מִפלָגָה דָתִית לְאֻמִית (mi•phᵊlãg•ãhꞋ dãt•itꞋ lᵊ•um•itꞋ; party of religious national; i.e., the National Religious Party or NRP). The NRP doesn't publish their circulation.

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Proto-Sinaitic rëshProto-Sinaitic tzadi (MSH: צר) Pronunciation Table [Glos_T, updated: 2023.01.26]

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeEastern Mediterranean Basin cBCE 3000–​

TzūrTzurians (rock, boulder, cliff; especially as the site of a fortress), modern Tyre, Lebanon.

Proto-Sinaitic rëshProto-Sinaitic tzadi, pl. Proto-Sinaitic memProto-Sinaitic yodProto-Sinaitic rëshProto-Sinaitic tzadi, follows the standard pattern of morphology of transliteration from original Semitic to Greek as upsilon, then confusion in transgarblations from the Greek, likely during the LBAC  "Greek Dark Age", to other languages around the Mediterranean Basin including Latin, where it was garbled to "y".

Originally, Tzūr (City) was the endonym of the rock-island  fortress-city of the Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a(ns), Hellenist exonym "Phoenicia(ns)". more

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TzurꞋa—​Ap­prox­i­mately coinciding with the first appearance of Roman Latins (cBCE 10th century), Tzūr Citydom predominated and subsumed Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a(ns). However, Latins and other foreign traders via their maritime shipping, having long known them by the exonym, "Phoenicia(ns)" (Latin Poenicus ), were interested exclusively in bare essentials needed to conduct international trade. These bare essentials of communication business jargon, pidgin, needed for international trade are recorded in Linear A (TzūrꞋi•an mariners' & traders' pidgin transgarblations, largely still undeciphered) and evolved to Linear B pidgin Greek transgarblations, which incorporated bare business jargon essentials of Greek.

Whatever extra-trade interest there may have been among foreigners to otherwise interact with the TzurꞋi•ans by their endonym wasn't of use outside TzurꞋa. Thus, foreigners, accustomed to calling them by their exonym. "Phoenicia(ns)", had no motivatation to transliterate the Semitic 𐤑𐤓 of "Phoenicians" and, so, recorded no change in their internal composition (from Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•ans to TzurꞋi•ans) or noting either of their endonyms.

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TzurꞋa Colony Island—​originally transliterated to Greek θύρα, is the original namesake (garbled) homonym of θήρα  confirming that θύρα (Thera), was the original Greek transliteration of Proto-Sinaitic rëshProto-Sinaitic tzadi first colonized by the TzurꞋi•ans!!!

Following the standard morphological pattern, θύρα also garble-transliterated, via several Mediterranean language garblings, to Τύρος, Tyre, Tyria(ns), Tyrrhenian … and Θήρα. This long predates Greek presence and, therefore, the island's Greek name: Kal•lisꞋtæ. The Greek claim, that the island was named "Thera" after a Spartan Greek colonizer, is chronologically impossible. Perhaps the much later Spartan colonizer took the name of the island as an honorific; or was a Spartan from TzurꞋi•an ancestry. When the Greek island of Kal•lisꞋtæ was, still later, colonized by the Romans, they renamed the island to Latin "Sancta Irene"; English "St. Irene"—Santorini. (This Roman-Latin name was only later transliterated into pidgin Greek as Σάνταs Ειρήνη.)

θύρα ("port"), i.e. TzurꞋa ("rock-fortress" port), also morphs to Greek Πύλος ("gate"); strongly suggesting that the archeologically later infusion of Hellenic Greeks Pūlossians retained the TzurꞋi•ans theme. more

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