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Updated: 2021.06.17


Early Bronze Age

Before c. BCE 1112

While the roots of oral עִבְרִית trace back to עֵבֶר in the Early Bronze Age, c BCE 2393, and Av•râm, c BCE 2039, the current terminus ante quem for written Hebrew is a BCE 10th century (the time of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh) shard inscription from מִבְצָר הָאֵלָ֑ה in central Yi•sᵊr•â•eil (adjoining Mōd•i•in to the west).

After 2½ Millenia As The Spoken Language Of Yi•sᵊr•â•eil and Yᵊhūdâh

c. 135 CE — Conversational Hebrew Eclipsed

Conversational Hebrew was silenced, initially by the Roman destructions of 70 & 135 CE with the resulting exile, falling into disuse not long after the death of רַבַּן גַּמְלִיאֵל  דְּיַבְנֶה (c. 115 CE), being displaced by various European languages of Diaspora Jews and dwindling to no more than a little-understood and evolving "sacred language".

By the 6th century CE, Hebrew had been relegated to extremely rare, written, literary circles and the beit kᵊnësët—where the limited use of the limited Hebrew vocabulary in Ta•na"kh (and Aramaic in Ta•lᵊmūd) was internalized as a sacred, holy, hence esoteric (i.e. mystical and angelic) tongue, prohibited in "profane" conversation.

Conversational Hebrew Extinct, Until The 19th Century CE

1880s CE — אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֵּן־יְהוּדָה Revives Conversational Hebrew

Hebrew remained practically extinct until the late 19th century CE when, in 1881, Russian-born Lithuanian Jew אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֵּן־יְהוּדָה, father & "reviver" of conversational Hebrew in the modern age, made a•liy•âh. Relying heavily on Scripture and Yiddish, he developed the first Hebrew dictionary in modern times and, in 1884, began publishing 2 Hebrew-language newspapers in Yᵊru•shâ•layim — despite fierce opposition from the (heavily German bastardized Aramaic-Hebrew) Yiddish-speaking Ultra-Orthodox, who felt they were chosen dictators over Hebrew as a "Holy Tongue".

As a result, Jews around the world annually celebrate the birthday of אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֵּן־יְהוּדָה (Tenthmonth 25) as "Hebrew Language Day".

Today's State

Pronunciations & Definitions Eroded; Some Assimilated & Confused

Glaring Example Of Difference In Pronunciation:
Glaring Example Of Difference In Definition:

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