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Updated: 2020.08.30 

Pl. of צְדוֹקִי. (For chronological development, see my Chronology Of Tanakh, From "The Big Nᵊtiyâh", Live-Link Technology

צְדוֹקִים is, most often, the name of one of the three major 1st century Judean sects; usually Hellenized to Σαδδουκαιος. English translations further sanitize some instances of the already-Hellenized term of its original, hated, Judaic ethnicity, gentilizing it, instead, to "saints" (righteous ones) in order to make certain passages sound like they were written to gentile Christians instead of Jews.


"According to most scholars" originally Bᵊn•ei-Tzâ•dōq—sons of Tzâ•dōq—eventually evolved into the Hellenist Kō•han•im and the wealthy aristocratic class of Hellenist Jews – both of whom collaborated with the Hellenist Roman occupiers.

The Bᵊn•ei-Tzâ•dōq derive from Tzâ•dōq Bën-Akh•i•tūv, the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl during the reign of Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh, who returned the A•rōn ha-Bᵊrit and remained loyal to Dâ•wid ha-Mëlëkh, anointing Shᵊlōm•ōh as Mëlëkh—for which his descendants were awarded exclusive right to serve as Kō•han•im 

Original (Qum•rân "Essenes") צְדוֹקִים

Bën-Gurion Univ. Prof. of Linguistics Ëlish•â Qim•ron has demonstrated from Dead Sea Scroll 4Q MMT that the Qum•rân-"Essenes" were also צְדוֹקִים. As the better-known צְדוֹקִים of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim were corrupt Hellenist Roman appointee vassals, i.e., the "כֹּהֵן הַרֶשׁעַ," the Qum•rân-"Essene" צְדוֹקִים were clearly the more authentic, and probably hearkened back to the Khasidim.

Hellenized צְדוֹקִים

Consequently, it is essential to distinguish between the Hellenist Roman appointed vassals of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh who sometimes weren't even genealogically kohanim at all, from the Qumran צְדוֹקִים. As the Hellenist Roman quisling " צְדוֹקִים" in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh were obviously Hellenized from the earlier Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq Tzᵊdoq•im, it is justified to refer to the "צְדוֹקִים" in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, who often weren't Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq, as Hellenist צְדוֹקִים. We can then easily differentiate the Hellenist צְדוֹקִים from the authentic (probably Khasidim-) "Bᵊn•ei Tzâ•dōq" Tzᵊdoq•im of Qum•rân. See also related terms Tzedaqah, Tzadiq, Tzeddeq, Qumran צְדוֹקִים and Hellenist צְדוֹקִים.

The genuine צְדוֹקִים were displaced from the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, first by the Syrian Hellenists (Antioch IV Epiphanes) and later by the Romans, both of whom appointed their own 'Kō•han•im' and 'Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl', who weren't even genealogically authentic kō•han•im—corrupting the priesthood irreversibly, forever.

The first genealogically non-Kō•hein Roman appointee "Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl" was a fanatic Hellenist named Menelaus (d. ca. B.C.E. 162), who succeeded Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•dōq.

The corruption of the Kᵊhun•âh is well documented in Ta•na"kh: Ma•lâkh•i 1,8,13-14; 2.8-9, 13; Ëzᵊr•â 10.18ff; Nᵊkhëm•yâh 13.29.

Specifically, it was Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•dōq, a rabid Hellenizer Reformist, who Hellenized—corrupted—the Kᵊhun•âh for all time. He was also the last Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl who was even genealogically qualified! He purchased the office of Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl from Antiochus IV Epiphanes in B.C.E. 175, deposing the last Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl who was faithful to Tor•âh—his own brother, Yᵊkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•dōq.

Consequently, the genuine Kō•han•im> / צְדוֹקִים were relegated primarily to Qum•rân. The genealogically unqualified Roman puppets who served as priests in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh in Yᵊru•shâ•layim were Hellenist צְדוֹקִים who became known as the "Sadducees."

כֹּהֵן הַרֶשׁעַ (Dead Sea Scroll "Wicked Priest")

It then becomes clear why the genuine צְדוֹקִים of Qum•rân called Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•dōq (and his successors) Kō•hein hâ-Rësha instead of Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl. The Qum•rân Kha•sid•im Tzᵊdoq•im also designated the last Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl who was faithful to Tor•âh, Yᵊkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•dōq, as the Moreih ha-Tzëdëq.

The argument that Yᵊkhon•yâh Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•dōq cannot be the Moreih ha-Tzëdëq because the Moreih ha-Tzëdëq is documented to have lived at a later time is as silly as arguing that A•har•on couldn't have been the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl because the Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl is documented to have lived when the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh was destroyed in 70 C.E.

The relationship between the Romans and the Hellenist צְדוֹקִים was always a case of the compromising Hellenist צְדוֹקִים being rejected as apostate and turncoat כֹּהֵן הַרֶשׁעַ by the rest of the Jews while their refusal to give allegiance to Rome, manifested in their resistance against the occupying authorities, failed to satisfy the Roman Hellenists.

The Hellenist sâ•tâns who tempted Ribi Yᵊho•shua

5 Then the sâ•tân 4.1.1 took [Ribi Yᵊho•shua] and brought him up into the high place 4.5.1 of the Hei•khâl 4.5.2 in the Ir ha-Qodësh 4.5.3 & 1.18.7

8 Another time the sâ•tân 4.1.1 took [Ribi] Yᵊho•shua into a very high, steep har and said to him, 'See all of the legions,4.8.1 and their kingships,4.17.1 and governments, and all of the good things in them.' 4.8.2 Then he said to him, 'It is mine, and if you will kneel down and bow to me one bow,4.9.1 I will give it to you.' (The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 4.5-11)

Hypocrites, Snakes, Sons of Sâ•tân, Enemies of Church & God Jesus
Pharisees (redaction by Hellenist Roman Church)? Or Hellenist Sadducees?

Of the three major min•im of the 1st century C.E., both—the Qum•rân Essene צְדוֹקִים and the Pᵊrush•im (which included every Ribi)—regarded the third min, the Hellenist צְדוֹקִים, as apostate כֹּהֲנֵי הַרֶשׁעַ collaborators with the Hellenist Roman occupiers.

It's no accident that the Hellenist Roman gentile Christian Church identified with the Roman-collaborating Hellenist צְדוֹקִים ‭ ‬ – 180° opposite to the anti-Hellenist, Judean Pᵊrush•im, which included Ribi Yᵊho•shua! And that makes it no accident that, between the 2nd and 4th centuries, Hellenist Roman gentile Christians redacted their native gentile Hellenist mythology into their Hellenist (Greek) Διαθηκη Καινη (see the pages of our History Museum).

Instead of regarding the Roman-collaborating Hellenist צְדוֹקִים as apostates —like the Judaic Pᵊrush•i Ribi Yᵊho•shua and Nᵊtzâr•im did (!), the Hellenist Roman gentiles of Christianity have always been on the opposite—Hellenist צְדוֹקִים—side of the fence, regarding "Pharisee" (Pᵊrush•i) Judeans ("Jews") as the derogatory (and misojudaic) synonym for "hypocrite."

66 C.E. – Emigration of צְדוֹקִים to Eastern Europe

While there had always been a difference of religion between even the Hellenist צְדוֹקִים and the Roman occupiers, 66 C.E. introduced a fissure between the Hellenist צְדוֹקִים and Hellenist Romans that cracked open, creating a no-longer-bridgeable chasm, when increasing tensions between Hellenists and Jews erupted in the desecration, by Hellenists (including non-Jewish foreigner occupiers), of a Beit ha-Kᵊnësët in Keis•âriyâh (Caesarea). The Romans refused to take any action against the Hellenists. It was impossible for the Pᵊrush•im to accept a Roman policy that, by their refusal to punish the offenders, passively endorsed Hellenist desecration of their Bât•ei ha-Kᵊnësët.

The writing was on the wall and not even the Hellenist צְדוֹקִים could any longer ignore it. With their lifeline of Jewish-Roman relations irreparably destroyed, the option of trying to walk a middle path of assimilation between Jews and Romans evaporated. The Hellenist צְדוֹקִים, forced to choose sides, broke with the Romans. Ël•i•ëzër Bën Kha•nan•yâh, son of the Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im Kō•hein ha-Jâ•dōl, stopped the apostate Tᵊphil•ot and qor•bân•ot in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh for the Roman Emperor, which they had earlier authorized to comply with the Roman occupiers, and subsequently led a successful attack on the Roman garrison occupying Yᵊru•shâ•layim. The pro-Roman, Hellenist king descended from an Ë•dom•i-Arab father and Arab mother, Agrippa II, sided with the Romans and fled Yᵊru•shâ•layim. These were the trigger events that culminated in the destruction of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh 4 years later, in 70 C.E.

What happened to these Hellenist "Sadducees"
Archeogenetics: Matriarchal Ancestry of Ash•kᵊnazim

"Professor Martin Richards, of the Archaeogenetics Research Group at the University of Huddersfield, has published a paper… Archaeogenetics can help to resolve this dispute [of the origin of Ash•kᵊnazim]. Y-chromosome studies have shown that the male line of descent does indeed seem to trace back to the Middle East…

We have settled this issue by looking at large numbers of whole mitochondrial genomes – sequencing the full 16,568 bases of the molecule – in many people from across Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. We have found that, in the vast majority of cases, Ash•kᵊnazi lineages are most closely related to southern and western European lineages – and that these lineages have been present in Europe for many thousands of years.

"This means that, even though Jewish men may indeed have migrated into Europe from [Judea] around 2000 years ago, they brought few or no wives with them. They seem to have married with European women, firstly along the Mediterranean, especially in Italy [Hellenist Roman women], and later (but probably to a lesser extent) in western and central Europe. This suggests that, in the early years of the Diaspora, Judaism took in many converts from amongst the European population, but they were mainly recruited from amongst women. Thus, on the female line of descent, the Ash•kᵊnazim primarily trace their ancestry neither to [Judea] nor to Khazaria, but to southern and western Europe [i.e., Hellenist Roman women]. (<http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-10/uoh-nii100813.php>, accessed 2013.10.08).

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