C Pulossians
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Updated: 2023.01.10 


The Πυλοσιάν, pl. ΠυλοσιανοίHellenist Pulossians

cBCE 1200 Egyptian Snapshot—​Earliest Extant Documentation Of Mediterranean Mariners
≈3½ Centuries After Apocalyptic Aegean Kal•lisꞋtæ Island Eruption & Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ (cBCE )

The earliest currently-extant written evidence can provide only a keyhole, cBCE 1200 Egyptian, snapshot of the עֵרֶב רַב  composition of Mediterranean Basin mariners who were navigating the Mediterranean Sea cBCE 1190.

Since written language didn't develop until cBCE 3300 (Egyptian hieroglyphs & Sumerian cuneiform), written documentation can never inform us of human development prior to the emergence of written language in human development. Further investigation of human origins and development must rely on other sciences; e.g., physics (e.g., carbon dating, etc.), genetics, geology, (scientific) archaeology, et al.—​e.g., A•dãm•ãhꞋ, Tzidōnians  & Tzōria 

Under constructionqq

200 burials dating to the Philistine period in which individuals were interred separately. This is unlike Canaanite funerary practices in which the dead were cremated or buried collectively in pits or tombs. Genetic analysis of these remains, says Master, supports Egyptian accounts of the Philistines’ origins. He was part of a team that analyzed the DNA of 10 individuals found in the Ashkelon cemetery: three dating from the Bronze Age, four from the Early Iron Age, and three dating to the tenth to ninth century B.C. The team found that DNA sampled from the Early Iron Age burials had a European genetic component that set the people apart from the local Bronze Age Canaanite population and supports the idea that the Philistines originated in Crete.

are the תִירָס‎ widely acknowledged by the exonyms "Sea People" of "Tursha" (in a Ra-moses 3rd inscription) or "Teresh" (Merneptah Stele), a naval power that forcibly colonized many port cities around the Mediterranean Basin cBCE 1200,  is yet another garbling of their endonym: 𐤑𐤓, son of Hellenist progenitor‎ Proto-Semitic tavProto-Semitic peiProto-Semitic yod, whose clan gradually expanded north and west into Eurasia (modern Lebanon, Greece and Europe). (see also the Tzidōnians  & Tzōrians .

Pylos (gate) harbor Sphacteria island rocks (Aerial Video Factory Cyprus)
Click to enlargePūlos ("Gate", Anglicized to Pylos) harbor, Sfaktiria island, & Ionian Sea in one picture (used by permission, © All rights reserved - by Aerial Video Factory Cyprus)

Pylos Harbor (Google Earth)
Click to enlargePylos ("Gate")-shaped harbor port (Google Earth)

Pulossian(s)—​ancient Mycenæan-​Greek naval superpower and maritime shipping cartel operating out of כַּפְתּוֹר, in concert with the Aegean Islands (with headquarters on Kal•lisꞋtæ Island), which exercised hegemony over the entirety of the Mediterranean Basin, colonizing its most strategic ports and surrounding coastlands.

qq0811 Some 8 millennia before the Biblical period, when languages first become evident to scientists at the dawn of civilization, that first language along the eastern littoral of the Mediterranean Basin was proto-Semitic. And archaeologists have a fair idea of their geographic area based on styles of arrowheads and 14C datings of . The first recorded people of the geography we're trying to describe were an aggregation of "Semites", who spoke Semitic languages. Thus, they were

  1. descendants of the 1st-generation Bën- NōꞋakh), שֵׁם. Thus, the earliest recorded inhabitants of the land we're trying to define were the שֵׁמוׂת (corrupted to "Shemites"),

  2. who were the ancestors of, inhabiting the eventual land of, Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ, Lōt (SE shore of Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh) and Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

Ergo, their land was referred to as שֵׁם; the land we set out to describe.

qq0810 "Syro-Palestine" is even worse. Beside referring to a land north of Syria (now Lebanon), it is always politically skewed and redefined by whomever uses it; meaning something different (not a legitimate historical geography, even blurry) to everyone. Going all the way back to the dawn of East Mediterranean civilization, arts-degreed sociologist-archaelogists are bringing the geography of these settlements into focus—but they've made up their own, misdirecting, names for peoples they can't identify. While the beginnings of civilization can be geographically discerned, no "Natufian" ever existed there. Archaeologically & genetically, the earliest humans in the ??? were a mixture of

qqq0730begin, most likely an immediate and broad welcoming of foreign (Mycenaean) technology introduced by the well-known Eastern Med, island-hopping Pulossian, Aegaean & Cretan sea-farers [see https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/962626; "the Mycenaean character of the site in LM III might be viewed primarily in terms of local elites appropriating new, foreign modes of social distinction, or at most that an indigenous population were now being led by a minority non-local (Knossian / mainland) population… The researchers believe that while local elites were strategically aligned with Mycenaean powers, as evidenced by their conspicuous adoption of mainland styles of dress, drinking, and burial, most people continued to live their lives in much the same way as before." Carter T, Kilikoglou V (2022) Raw material choices and technical practices as indices of cultural change: Characterizing obsidian consumption at ‘Mycenaean’ Quartier Nu, Malia (Crete). PLoS ONE 17(8): e0273093. Accessed 2022.08.25. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273093 When modern arts-degreed archaeologists (ADA) were studying Mycenaean Greek pottery in Crete and Egypt [So ADAs would have been closer naming the ancient Cretans Egyptians than "Minoans"], they didn't know which tribe of Mycenaean Greeks to credit. So the archaeologists in Crete gave them a new name no people ever had: "Minoans" (after a legendary king) while the archaeologists in Egypt, while avoiding the folly of giving them a name, identified them generally by their main feature: Sea Peoples. All of these trace back to the Cretans cBCE 3500. qq0803 Guy D. Middleton. Mycenaeans, Greeks, archaeology and myth: identity and the uses of evidence in the archaeology of Late Bronze Age Greece. Eras Journal, ed. 3, 2002.06. Accessed 2022.08.03. https://www.monash.edu/arts/philosophical-historical-international-studies/eras/past-editions/edition-three-2002-june/mycenaeans-greeks-archaeology-and-myth-identity-and-the-uses-of-evidence-in-the-archaeology-of-late-bronze-age-greece#notes "examine the persistent intrusion of myths as ‘evidence’ into the archaeology of Late Bronze Age (LBA) Greece (sixteenth to eleventh centuries BCE).[1]… Other myths, such as those of the Dorian migration… these myths have been so influential that they have become embedded in scholarly thought concerning the period… examine the use and effect of the term ‘Mycenaean’ in and on the archaeology of the Aegean LBA. It will be argued that it has ‘skewed’ thinking about the period – particularly in terms of the notion of a Mycenaean identity or ethnicity and consequently in interpretations of archaeological evidence. This problem, it will be argued, is linked to modern ideas of western cultural heritage and the relative values ascribed by modern mediators of past cultures to those cultures. Our evidence is the writings of archaeologists and historians – the mediators of the past. Neither archaeology nor history are static fields and we can observe changes in the interpretation and presentation of the past. Often works can be seen to reflect the concerns and prejudices of their own times as much as, if not more than, the time they study. Fortunately we also tend to have the data upon which these interpretations were based, and hindsight which allows us the opportunity to re-evaluate and re-interpret the conclusions of others in light of changes in theory, the appearance of new evidence and growing self awareness in a given field. … " ***** PūlꞋos, the Pūlossians (Philistia, Philistines, Palestine, Palestinians) Cretans (Minoans) and qq0803 Phoenicians; i.e. the Sea Peoples. While their colony in what is today Lebanon was distinguished by their famous Phoenix-dye industry in 𐤑𐤓 ("Phoenixians"), these were all Pūlossians.

A comparative study of DNA haplogroups of modern Cretan men showed that a male founder group, from Anatolia or the Levant, is shared with the Greeks. King RJ, Ozcan SS, Carter T, et al. Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. Annals of Human Genetics. 2008 Mar;72(Pt 2):205-214. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x. PMID: 18269686. Accessed 2022.08.02.(wiki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretan (Minoan)_civilization#cite_ref-16 2022.08.02.

"An analysis of ancient DNA has revealed that Ancient Cretans (Minoans) and Mycenaens were genetically similar with both peoples descending from early Neolithic farmers."They likely migrated from Anatolia to Greece and Crete thousands of years prior to the Bronze Age. Modern Greeks, in turn, are largely descendants of the Mycenaeans, the study found. … The Cretan (Cretan (Minoan)) civilization flourished on Crete beginning in the third millennium before the Common Era. and was astonishingly advanced artistically and technologically. The Cretans (Minoans) were also the first literate people of Europe. The Mycenaean civilization developed in mainland Greece in the second millennium before the Common Era. It shared many cultural features with the Cretans (Minoans). They used the Linear B script, an early form of Greek. … In broad strokes, the new study shows that there was genetic continuity in the Aegean from the time of the first farmers to present-day Greece, but not in isolation. The peoples of the Greek mainland had some admixture with Ancient North Eurasians and peoples of the Eastern European steppe both before and after the time of the Cretans (Minoans) and Mycenaeans, which may provide the missing link between Greek speakers and their linguistic relatives elsewhere in Europe and Asia." Iosif Lazaridis et al, Genetic origins of the [Cretans (Minoans, traditionally cBCE 2700-1544 Kallistae]) and Mycenaeans [c LBAC-Kallistae to BCE 1375], Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature23310. https://phys.org/news/2017-08-civilizations-greece-revealing-stories-science.html 2022.08.02.

"Though Cretan (Minoan) influence is prevalent throughout the Aegean during the time of its palaces, we know that three off-island sites in particular had exceedingly strong Cretan ties and are the most likely candidates for direct Minoan governance—Kastri on Kythera, Trianda on Rhodes, and Akrotiri on Thera. They surely served as regional gateways from different areas of the island during the heyday of the Cretans (Minoans). … We have always known of Crete’s agricultural bounty throughout its long history, but we now have direct evidence that it produced the highest quality textiles by the 17th century BCE when the Minoans were utilizing royal purple dye from sea snails, possibly centuries before the Phoenicians.[39: Koh, Betancourt, Pareja, Brogan, and Apostolakou 2015; the study of the purple dye industry during Middle Bronze Age Crete will be a part of a much larger study investigating the nature of organic commodities production, exchange, and consumption in the Eastern Mediterranean throughout antiquity, Koh forthcoming. {Koh, A. J. Forthcoming. Luxury Trade and Social Complexity in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Cambridge.}]" Minoan-Mycenaean ► Andrew J. Koh. (2016.04.27). Mycenoan Crete—Archaeological Evidence for the Athenian Connection. The Center for Hellenic Studies, Classical Inquiries, Studies on the Ancient World from the Center for Hellenic Studies 2022.08.02.. https://classical-inquiries.chs.harvard.edu/mycenoan-crete-archaeological-evidence-for-the-athenian-connection/ 2022.08.02.

enforcing their monopoly over the Mediterranean Basin, its major ports—including the Ionic, Aegaean, Adriatic, Alboran, Balearic, Ligurian & Tyrrhenian Seas as far as Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean. They colonized all Mycenaean-era major ports and coastlands of the major inland caravansary hubs throughout the Mediterranean Sea—from Morocco to Portugal

"Philistia/​Philistine(s)" & "Palestine/​Palestinian(s)" are all various foreign transliterations and grammatical forms of the same—Greek—people, Παλαιστίνη; and refer to the identical same, single, ancient Greek people: the Pūlossians (Philistines, Palestinians) of their ancient Greek colonies of the Mediterranean seacoast, particularly from PūlꞋos seacoast colony in the Sinai, on the Egyptian border, as far north as what is now Turkey!

Παλαιστίνη, aka the "Sea Peoples" and "Cretans (Minoans)", who controlled the Mediterranean Sea as the Late Bronze Age maritime superpower cartel (q.v. Pūlossians).

The Παλαιστίνη Maritime Superpower was shattered by the eruption in at their Aegaean hub, Kal•lisꞋtæ, c  . The entire ancient Mediterranean world changed in that instant, causing a half-millennium of climate apocalypse—the LBAC  "Greek Dark Age"—that collapsed empires and economies, including the Παλαιστίνη maritime empire, throughout the eastern Mediterranean Basin. This cataclysm in the heart of their maritime empire orphaned them of their maritime protection and support. No longer able to support their seacoast colonies, the Παλαιστίνη colonies withered and assimilated into the surrounding peoples—with the notable exception, as corroborated by Greek DNA analyses, of the Παλαιστίνη colony in what is now Lebanon.

With the exception of occasional Παλαιστίνη DNA echos of their Phoenician colony among modern Lebanese, the last Παλαιστίνη colony known to history was in Ashᵊqᵊlōn. In BCE 604 (as a result of their miscalculation in siding with nearby Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim against Nabû-kudurri-utzur (English: Nebuchadnezzar) (Nabû-kud•urri-utzur Jr.)), they abandoned their last stronghold, assimilating into the surrounding peoples, and disappearingforever from history.  With the exception of elements in Phoenicia, Παλαιστίνη were extinct. No longer a distinct people, all of there former colonies (even in Phoenicia) reverted back to the control of their Near East peoples. (Pulossians—"Philistines", "Palestinians", Phoenicians, Cretans (Minoans). Sea Peoples; see Ἡρόδοτος—were always distinct from, never confused with, "Arabia"—Pulossians were not Arabs!)

The ancient Mediterranean Pūlossians were originally Kit•imꞋ (not Myce­naean Greek) mariners who, along with their name—and the names of several of its coastal colonies around the eastern Mediterranean Basin—trace back to the Greek port of Pūlos ("Gate") Harbor, the ancient "Gateway to the Mediterranean World" on the west coast Ionian Sea of the Myce­naean region of the Peloponnese Peninsula, Greece. Pūlos was inhabited since Neolithic times and a significant kingdom in Myce­naean Greece.

The Pulossians were Mycenaean Greeks from PūlꞋos, and the original Hellenists (long before Alexander the Great). Their culture of welcoming assimilators while themselves also adapting to other peoples (assimilating), enabled the Pulossians to recruit and confederate a large confederation of tribal fleets, including their own marine sailing innovations to the even more ancient Kit•imꞋ cargo ships. Pūlossian innovations in marine architecture were astounding for their era. Their sailing war-galeys incorporated 2-stories (biremes) of oarsmen, tillers at both ends that could be raised and lowered to simply reverse course for an enormous advantage in nimble maneuvering during a fight, with an underwater ram on both ends. Their large sailing cargo-ships that, in size, rivaled those of Columbus 2½ millennia later! throughout the Aegean Islands and Mediterranean Sea, centralizing on the island of Crete. creating a naval superpower monopoly, providing the primary maritime shipping, throughout the Mediterranean Sea from its eastern coasts to Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean. Ironically, the Pulossians began as assimilators of others, and ended assimilating themselves, disappearing into their surroundings and becoming extinct as a distinct people.

Controlling the only shipping fleets and maritime routes on the Mediterranean Sea afforded the Pulossians a monopoly of access over all ports around the entire Mediterranean Rim. This shipping monopoly was "the only game in port", which made their shipping service made colonizing of a local port attractive to the local businesses and caravansaries—in every port around the entire Mediterranean Rim.

They named at least two of their most popular port-colonies after their hometown namesake: Πύλος  — the Mycænean Greeks' western port city and ancient maritime "Gate to the Ionian Sea and the Ancient Mediterranean World".

Related Names
•  "Sea People(s)"—Modern Handle For Unidentified Ancient Aegæn-Mediterranean Maritime Civilization

“ 'Sea Peoples' is a modern designation coined French Egyptologist Emmanuel de Rougé first used the term peuples de la mer (literally "peoples of the sea") in 1855 in a description of reliefs on the Second Pylon at Medinet Habu, documenting Year 8 of -Moses 3rd.

•  "Cretans (Minoans)"—Modern Name For Unidentified Ancient Aegæn-Mediterranean Maritime Civilization

"Cretan (Minoan)" (Μινωικός, pl. Μινωίτες), was the name of their legendary king (Minos) of their Mediterranean headquarters at Knossos, Crete. "Cretan (Minoan)" is nowhere suggested as the name of a people before 19th Century CE  when British arts-archaeologist Arthur Evans (1851–1941 CE), who excavated the ancient ruins of Knossos, Crete, ascribed this name from a couple of their Mediterranean coastal colonies linked by a similar pottery style.

•  Φοίνιξ (Phoenician {Phoenix-ian}-Dyer; Phoenix Bird)

"there is no measurable [genetic] Levantine or African influence in the Cretans (Minoans) and Myce­naeans,".

•  Pūlos Mutates To Pylos (then Pilos)

Ancient Greek inscriptions were typically written in all upper case. Ergo, modern archaeologists studied ΠΎΛΟΣ (PŪLꞋOS, some reading the upper case Greek ūpsilon ("Ύ") as a Latin/​English "Y"—producing "PYLOS". "Pylos" was subsequently Anglicized to "Pilos".

The Pulossians confederated with Agæan Islander mariners, colonizing many of the ports and coastlands rimming the Mediterranean Basin.

•  Mycenæan-Greek Mutates ► LBAC  "Dark Age" ► Koine-Greek

Mycenæan-Greek Pulossians  ► Phoenician Semitic-Aramaic ► LBAC  "Dark Age"

LBAC  "Dark Age"  Semitic Aramaic ► Koine-Greek Philistines/​Palestine(ans) 

Πυλοσιάν & Πυλοσιανοί Mutate To Palestine, Palestinians & Philistine(s)

Πυλοσιανοί was transliterated (xlit ) into practically all of the language alphabets and hieroglyphs around the Mediterranean Basin. So it shouldn't be surprising that different pronunciation versions of their name proliferated throughout the ancient Mediterranean Rim and the connecting caravansary trade routes inland. During the Dark Age that followed the Kal•lisꞋtæ eruption (cBCE ), which blew the heart of the Pulossian navel Aegean headquarters into the stratosphere, the Myce­naean Greek name of the orphaned, and scattered remnants, of the former naval superpower was eclipsed by the Roman era name, xlit  from the surrounding—non-Greek—languages back into Koine Greek as Παλαιστίνη & Φυλιστῖνοι (vide infra), from whence the English Palestine, Palestinian(s) and Philistine(s) all derived.

Myce­naean Greek Pulossian Mutated ► LBAC  ► Koine Greek Πυλοσιάν & Πυλοσιανοί (Palestine, Palestinian & Philistine)

Myce­naean Greek Pulossian Mutated ► LBAC  Semitic Phoenician ► Koine Greek Πυλοσιάν & Πυλοσιανοί (Palestine, Palestinians & Philistine; cf. infra)

Rainbow Rule

xTarshish-Class Cargo-Passenger Ships Pūlossian Ships

Pulossian-Phoenician oared fighting-galley with Phoenix-head prow
Click to enlargePulossians-Phoenician 2-storey oar-assisted sailing war-galley with Phoenix-​head  figureheads bow & stern and innovative reversible tiller-ram (drawing  based on Medinat Havu wall carving, Ra-moses 3rd)

Pulossians naval architects developed the 2-tiered  (and, later, 3-tiered) oar-assisted, reversible, sailing war-galleys to protect their maritime shipping monopoly throughout the Mediterranean and adjoining (Ionic, Aegean & Adriatic) Seas as far as the African and Portuguese (Atlantic Ocean) coasts.

Thus, the ancient Mediterranean Kit•imꞋ "Sea Peoples' " war galleys, described in the Egyptian annals, were double-tiered oar-assisted, sailing war galleys of the maritime shipping cartel of the Mediterranean Naval Cooperative of Pūlossians the confederation that incorporated numerous Ægean Islander tribal fleets.

“Nor were these tiny boats. The galley fighting-ships, with their [2–3 stories] of galley oars, could have a crew of over a hundred people. That is a pretty good size. But even those were small compared to the Phoenician cargo ships with their vast, rounded hulls. These ocean-going ships were built for huge loads and long hauls. They made the extended trips from Mediterranean ports out to Cadiz, [in Spain], Lixis [in Morocco] and other destinations on the Atlantic Ocean coasts of Spain and Morocco, and had to make each trip count.

“People have remarked that those cargo ships which sailed the seas for many hundreds of years [BCE] were comparable in size to the ones Columbus sailed to America in 1492 [CE].” 

Griffon fresco repro Knossos palace throne room (© Mentor)
Click to enlargeGriffon (Phoenix Bird on body of lion) fresco; from Knossos palace throne room (reproduction © Mentor)

The Pulossians created the ancient maritime shipping routes, ever learning marine innovations from the various Cycladic (Ægean) Islanders to maintain a lead in the world of naval technology. The [Hellenist] Pulossians 2-tiered, oar-assisted sailing war-galleys with brailed-rig and loose–footed square-sail  and cargo ships were faster, more maneuverable (their war-galleys able to reverse course in seconds rather than continuously adjusting sails through a tedious, wind-dependent and time-consuming circuitous arc )—sailing more efficiently, ever closer to the wind—enabling more direct and faster—more profitable—courses, protected by their own naval ships—rivaling ships far in the future like those of Colombus!

Pulossian-Phoenician Mediterranean trade routes
Click to enlargePulossian-Phoenician Mediterranean trade routes

Pulossian sea-traders plied the entire Mediterranean Basin, trading with all of the languages and cultures of all of the coastal peoples of the entire Mediterranean Rim (further trading with the port's caravan traders from interior locations as distant as Mesopotamia). From Adriatic ports in the heartlands of Europe, to Portugal, to the Eastern Mediterranean coastal ports of Turkey, Syria, the Levant, Egypt and Africa, their international connections enabled the basically peaceful Pulossian sea-traders to learn, and then further develop, the most advanced naval and weaponry technology, culture, art—and even iron-working toward the late Bronze Age world.

The Pulossians' capital was Knossos, כַּפְתּוֹר. Their resulting technological superiority, particularly in shipbuilding and naval warfare, enabled the Pulossians to build—and enforce—their maritime network hegemony as the naval superpower over the entire Mediterranean Basin.

Under constructionqq0728-1


Pre-Alexandrian Hellenism

ca. BCE 2700: PūlossianMediterranean Maritime Cartel

Pulossians from Πύλος, Mycenae, Greece, establish Kal•lisꞋtæ-based Ægean-Mediterranean Seas maritime, merchant marine, international trading empire

AvᵊrãmꞋ Migrates To The Southern Levant

cBCE 2004—Neo-Sumerian speaking  Persian Gulf coast Iraqi  from 𒋀𒀕𒆠 (Ūr[im]), 𒀊𒊏cuneiform am (combination bi+kur) wiki Sumero-Akkadian_Cuneiform  (Ab•ra•am) migrates to disputed border region of the Levant between (Myce­naean Greek-speaking) Philistine & (Semitic-Hebrew speaking) Kᵊna•anꞋ in the southern Levant; purchases and homesteads his regions of Khë•vᵊr•onꞋ and Bᵊeir ShëvꞋa—thereby establishing neonatal Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

BCE 20th Century Mycenæan ►Ægæan (Bronze Age) ►cBCE 1200 Ionian Greek Anatolia 

map Ancient Greece
Click to enlargeMyce­naean Greece, Tribes; Post- LBAC  Classical Greece Successors

"Early Greek presence The north-western coast of Anatolia  was inhabited by Greeks of the … Myce­naean culture from the [BCE 20th century], related to the Greeks of southeastern Europe and the Aegean.

cBCE 1755 Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ Sojourns In Mi•tzᵊraꞋyim

Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ seeks temporary respite from famine in Mi•tzᵊraꞋyim, but is delayed there more than 2 centuries before wresting their freedom.

cBCE :
  1. Eruption of Kal•lisꞋtæ
  2. The LBAC  Greek "Dark Age"

    Beginning with the [Late] Bronze Age [C]ollapse [LBAC , aka Greek Dark Ages; triggered by the eruption of Kal•lisꞋtæ], the [south]west coast of Anatolia (western Turkey) was settled by Ionian Greeks, usurping the area of the related but earlier Myce­naean Greeks. Over several centuries, numerous Ancient Greek city-states were established on the coasts of Anatolia. Greeks started Western philosophy on the western coast of Anatolia (Pre-Socratic philosophy).

    Arts-degreed humanities archaeologists excavating Late Helladic  2A (LH2A, [BCE c1635c, the stratigraphically-pottery estimated terminus ante quem ) tombs  in PūlꞋos, happened upon the tomb of the Myce­naean whom they nicknamed the "Griffon Warrior" (hereafter Griff) after an ivory Griffon plaque found between his legs.

    Under constructionqq
    Griffon Warrior Greek https://www.eurekalert.org/specialtopic/archaeology/home

    The archaeologists estimate that Griff was about 30-35 years old and 1.70 m [5' 7"] tall when he died, ≈15–75 years after the eruption that caused the LBAC  Dark Age. Like Mōsh•ëhꞋ and Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ at the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ, Griff was chronologically proximate, perhaps their contemporary, and, thus, may also have witnessed the Kal•lisꞋtæ eruption of  .

    If Griff was in PūlꞋos at the time of the explosion, he would have been ≈340 km (210 mi) upwind (west). Judging from the Mt. Tambora eruption (1815 CE, see Kal•lisꞋtæ link) heard 2,600 km away, Griff would probably have heard the blast; and, perhaps, noticed the plume on the southeastern horizon and an initial glow at night.

    The archaeologists also found a gold pendant of Hãt-HōrꞋ  beside Griff, confirming not only ancient Pulossian trade and cultural assimilation with Mi•tzᵊraꞋyim, but also that the Pulossians esteemed Hãt-HōrꞋ as a parallel of their own moon mermaid-goddess Kal•lisꞋtæ.

  3. Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ: Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ Returns Home To ËrꞋëtz Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ From Mi•tzᵊr•ayꞋim
Hellenist Greek vs Semitic Aramaic-Hebrew Pulossian/​"Philistine", Pūlos/​"Palestine" Pulossians Identifiable By Phoenix-Dyed Feathered Headdress

Philistine captives Ramses3 BCE1177 feathered headdress wall relief Medinet Habu Thebes
Click to enlarge"Cretans (Minoans)"/​"Philistines" with Phoenix (Phoenician) dyed (simulated?) feathered headdress; captives of Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ Ramses-3, BCE1177 (wall relief, Medinet Habu, Thebes, Egypt)

The Pūlössians were most identifiable by their feathered, Phoenix (i.e. Phoenician) Firebird, headdress. Amalgamating the predominant maritime Ægean Islanders' tribal "Sea Peoples" fleets, the Pulossians developed and dominated the naval power cooperative of sea-faring mariners who ruled the Mediterranean Sea; around whose ports they colonized (consequently at times causing friction with) many of the main coastal ports all around the Mediterranean Rim.

From Mycenæan Greek To Akkadian & Aramaic-Hebrew

Hammond Map of Ancient Eastern Mediterranean
Click to enlargeLocation names edited in by Pã•qidꞋ Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋū Bën-Dãvid, www.netzarim.co.il

Aside from modern politically claims, however, there remains another implication that can no longer continue to be ignored: the etymology of the name "Philistine" and their "Palestine" colonies, must, finally, be understood from their own Greek language, no longer citing a foreign Semitic (i.e. Hebrew) root. This has long been obvious by the absence of the Greek Παλαιστίνη & Φυλιστῖνοι to describe פְּלִישְׁתִּים in LXX (which deflects to a generalized ἀλλόφυλοι).

Pulossian seems to have first been xlit  into Akkadian, variously as 𒆳𒉺𒆷𒊍𒌓, 𒆳𒉿𒇺𒋫  or 𒆳𒉿𒇺𒋫𒀀𒀀. The latter was then apparently adopted into 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀 (Aramean) phonetically as פְּלִשְׁתָּאָה  This form was likely then pluralized according to Aramaic grammar producing פְּלִשְׁתִּין (masc. pl. n.; the sing. being פְּלִשְׁתִּי), implying adoption of a new root verb, פָּלַשׁ, and only thereafter implying the m.n. פְּלֶשֶׁת with the ensuing Hebrew pl. פְּלִשְׁתִּים.

From Aramaic-Hebrew To Egyptian

Peleset (from wall of Medinat Havu)

≈BCE 16th Century—We find a most glaring example of such an etymological error, for example, in the case where an Egyptian name (conferred by a Pharaonic Princess!) is deliberately Hebraized (because the Egyptian name glorified an idol) to delete the idol-name from the Egyptian Pharaonic family surname "Tūt--M•s•z (“□-incarnate”)", and redefine the original Egyptian modifier (-Moses) from its original Egyptian meaning: -"incarnate".

Hebrew-speakers adopted and qq xlit  this name into their own alephbeit, slightly altering its pronunciation, Hebraizing it to "Mōsh•ëhꞋ" and redefining it in Hebrew to "drawn from water" (referring to the Nile, from which he had been drawn as a baby; ignoring that it was an Egyptian Princess who named him). Thereafter, Hebrew-speakers assumed it to be an original Hebrew root.

This Hebraized name became accepted as originally Hebrew and thereafter xlit  into other languages, orphaned from its original Egyptian connections and meaning to Roman Koine Greek, Μωϋσῆς, and from Greek to Latin and English “Moses”).

≈BCE 12th Century: Xlit  In Egyptian

Meanwhile, the Egyptians referred to the Pulossians as 𓊪𓏲𓂋𓏤𓏤𓐠𓍘𓇋𓍑  and the hieroglyph of Ra-moses 3rd (cBCE 1190-1173), describing his sea battle with the Sea Peoples (vertical glyph from a wall inscription of his temple at Medinat Havu)

≈BCE 850: Classical Greece Period Emerges From Greek Dark Age From Pseudo-Original Aramaized-Hebrew To Hellenist Roman Koine Greek Πυλοσιάν & Πυλοσιανοί Are xlit  Into Many Languages While Greek Remains "Dark"

It’s always been conspicuously discrepant for historians and archaeologists to assume that a people would name themselves with a national name that means burrowers, rollers-in-dirt, colonizers, intruders or invaders (Hebrew פּלִישְׁתִּי, from the shōrꞋësh פָּלַשׁ ). That’s assuredly a Semitic dysphemism assigned by enemies (i.e. indigenous Kᵊna&•an•imꞋ) of the "Philistines, Ugaritic-Phoenicians of modern Lebanon and adopted by Mi•tzᵊraꞋyim) labeling Ægean Mycenaen-Cretan (Minoan) Greek “Sea People” colonizers. (Colonizing land migrants from the northeast, via the Fertile Crescent, were called ã•vᵊr•uꞋ.) Of course, it was always foolish to assume that native-Greek speakers named themselves (or an Egyptian Princess named her adopted son) in Hebrew.

The Aramaic and Hebrew influence had evolved the Mycenæan Greek to Roman (Koine Greek) Παλαιστίνη & Φυλιστῖνοι—"Palaistine" & "Phylistine"!

cBCE 722—Assyrians deracinate Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, leaving only YᵊhūdꞋãh.

The etymology of the original name of the Mediterranean "Sea Peoples" then seamlessly traces from its origin to its usage ("Philistines" & "Phoenicians") in today's English; first xlit  from Mycenæan-Greek into Aramaic, from which it was thereafter re-xlit , somewhat Aramaized, into Egyptian and later Hebraized to פְּלִשְׁתִּים. From this Hebrew, the remainder of its evolution is straightforward.

BCE 597 & 586 — Kaldean-NeoBabilim Cut Off The Head Of YᵊhūdꞋãh Exile Royal & Religious Heads; Other Judaeans Not Exiled)

YᵊhūdꞋãh becomes SãꞋtrap•y of Bã•vëlꞋ

cBCE 538—𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁, Shãh of 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire), conquers Bã•vëlꞋ; YᵊhūdꞋãh becomes a SãꞋtrap•y of the Iranian Neo-Persian (Achaemenid) Empire. BCE 539.10.12: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Defeats 𒆳𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠  (Kaldean  Neo-Babylonian Empire)

YᵊhūdꞋãh becomes SãꞋtrap•y of 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire).

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cBCE 445 (>4 Centuries After Greek Dark Age): Ἡρόδοτος Syria-Παλαιστίνη ("Palestine")

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeBCE 5th Century, Ἡρόδοτος Description of Eastern Mediterranean coastlands from Syria in the North to Egypt; including the 4 Pulossian (Philistine/​Palestina;) colonies

Ἡρόδοτος (cBCE 484–425) travels followed 102 years that YᵊhūdꞋãh had been nationally orphaned of its royal and religious cental government (Bã•vëlꞋ having "cut the head off" of the nation of YᵊhūdꞋãh). Consequently, in the time of Ἡρόδοτος travels, YᵊhūdꞋãh had been a leaderless people ("without a shepherd"), first absorbed into the 𒆳𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠  (Kaldean  Neo-Babylonian Empire) SãꞋtrap•y, then absorbed into the 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire) as a SãꞋtrap•y.

Thus, when Ἡρόδοτος was in Persia looking west toward Φοινίκης, describing the extent of Persia, he wrote (Histories, Book 4.38):

Ἡρόδοτος (cBCE 484–425) lived more than 4 centuries after the Greek Dark Ages had ended; in Halicarnassus, an Ionian Greek city on the SW coast of Anatolia (now Bodrum, Turkey), a SãꞋtrap•y of 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire). Ἡρόδοτος was a travel-writer, explicitly describes, exclusively, what he saw and heard on location, from local authorities, in his travels (not latest oral stories from sailors and merchants after he returned home). Thus, the description ascribed to Ἡρόδοτος referred, inter alia, not to what Ἡρόδοτος personally saw (which would have been Iran’s Fifth (Maritime) Tax SãꞋtrap•y—prior even to the decree of Iranian Shãh Artakhshast-Artaxerxes to authorize rebuilding the walls of Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim).

Accordingly, at the time Ἡρόδοτος wrote Ἱστορίαι chronicling the Greco-Persian Wars, Yᵊrū•shã•laꞋyim (as well as the entire nation of YᵊhūdꞋãh) was only 8 years into rebuilding after its nadir.

Ἡρόδοτος: Syria-Παλαιστίνη "Palestine"

From cBCE 445 until Hadrian—who actually exiled all of the Yᵊhūd•imꞋ upon pain of death and reformed YᵊhūdꞋãh for the first time as a Roman province Hadrian renamed from YᵊhūdꞋãh to "Syria-Palestina" (135 CE) the only thing that existed that Ἡρόδοτος could have referred to was the non-contiguous string of Pulossians coastal colonies between Egypt and—wait for it—Phoenicians (maritime cousins, but distinct)!

Most critically, nothing Ἡρόδοτος recounted can be definitively dated later than BCE 430. Before Hadrian, 135 CE, the Palestina Province was strictly in Syria—separated from YᵊhūdꞋãh by the Shō•mᵊr•ōnꞋ, the Gã•lilꞋ and Phoenicia (Lebanon)! Before 135 CE, there had never been any connection between the Roman "Palestina" province—i.e. Phoenicia, located in Syria (or the other coastal Philistine (Palestinian) colony-clusters, Gaza Strip) and YᵊhūdꞋãh. It wasn't until after Hadrian crushed the Bar-KōkhꞋvã Rebellion in 135 CE, that he was able to Romanize YᵊhūdꞋãh, erase its name and redraw the southern border of the existing Roman Province of Palestina, located in Syrai, extending its border south to swallow YᵊhūdꞋãh.

Those who argue that Ἡρόδοτος labeled any area of Israel as "Palestine" ignore the fact that Ἡρόδοτος traveled almost exclusively by boat. Even inland he traveled down the Nile or Euphrates rivers. Ἡρόδοτος saw "Palestine" during his travels 1. only from his ship sailing along the coast from Egypt to Syria, and 2. identifying the only only possible Syrian Palestina during his lifetime was located north of modern Lebanon—Syrian Palestina (which is also why he doesn't describe places in-between)!

This is corroborated as Ἡρόδοτος described “Carian“ Turks (a maritime people of the Ægean Sea from the SW coast of modern Turkey), who developed maritime shipping lanes and colonized the Syrian (and modern Lebanese) coast before being gradually pushed inland. “Carian“ appears to be yet another synonym, in yet another language, for "foreign colonists"; this referring to a Turkish (Anatolian) Ægean coastal colony of the Phoenicians (Myce­naean-Greek, not Arab, "Philistines"). This is corroborated by the distinctive Pulossian headdress. Plutarch (46-120 CE) mentions the "Carians" as being referred to by the Persians as "cocks" on account of their wearing (apparently Phoenix dyed feather, or simulated feather) Phoenician Firebird crests on their helmets.

Further, other researchers have also noted that the writings of Ἡρόδοτος explicitly and repeatedly specify Παλαιστίνη to refer exclusively to the coastal strip—not the interior—of the Eastern Mediterranean; i.e. DërꞋëkh ha-Yãm (The Coastal Road, Seaway) Trade Route; the only area that most major powers, seeking tax income, perpetually fought over. As Ἡρόδοτος explicitly specified, the continuance of YᵊhūdꞋãh in the interior was never severed—even under foreign rule.

E.g., Ἡρόδοτος Histories 4:39 — "…Between Persia and Phoenicia lies a broad and ample tract of country, after which the region I am describing skirts our sea, stretching from Phoenicia along the coast of Palestine-Syria till it comes to Egypt, where it terminates. This entire tract contains but three nations. The whole of Asia west of the country of the Persians is comprised in these two regions."  (Book 7): "[The maritime Cretan (Minoan) Lebanese and Syrians of Palestine], according to their own account, dwelt anciently upon [islands of] the Mediterranean Sea, but sailing thenceforth, moored on the seacoast of Syria, where they still inhabit—this [seacoast] part of Syria, and all the [coastal] strip extending from hence to Egypt [i.e., DërꞋëkh ha-Yãm (The Coastal Road, Seaway) Trade Route], which is known by the name of Παλαιστίνη.”

Thus, Pūlossian colonies controlled a number of major ports and nearby coastlands around the Mediterranean Basin (i.e. excluding land caravansarie Coastal Trade Routes). Either modern arts-degreed humanities archeologists and historians who conflate much of the interior of Kᵊna•anꞋ as “Arab Palestine” either cannot read logically or they are agenda-driven by pro-Arab politics.

cBCE 332: 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire) Conquered by Alexander the Great

YᵊhūdꞋãh Becomes a Hellenist Satrapy Under SëꞋlë•ūk•ös Empire

cBCE 140–BCE 64 Ma•kab•imꞋ to Roman Republic King Herod in BCE 63 BCE 63: Roman General Pompey Conquered YᵊhūdꞋãh

The Senate of the Roman Republic  crowned their client, Herod the Great (in Koine Greek): "ΒΑΣΙΛΕῪΣ ΤΩ͂Ν ἸΟΥΔΑΊΩΝ over the Roman province of YᵊhūdꞋãh

BCE 27: Polarized-Conflicted Roman Senate Morphs Roman Republic Into Roman Empire

(Familiar danger?)



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≈2nd-century CE: Koine Greek Has Displaced Myce­naean Greek 

By the time Koine predominated the Greek language, the Hebraized-Aramaic pronunciation and definition of פְּלִשְׁתִּין had apparently become so pervasive that, during the Greek Classic Period (i.e. when Greece emerged from its Dark Age), the Hebrew term פְּלִשְׁתִּין, with its Hebrew meaning of burrowing-in (i.e. invasive colonizing), was mistakenly assumed to be the original language—exactly the reverse of the pre-Dark Age reality.

As a result, today (like the Egyptian-originated name MōzꞋës), etymologies ascribe the root, with its definition, to be Hebrew—in contravention of the obvious Greek origin.

In the absence of a Pulossian chronicler from their Dark Age, Classical Greeks lost track of their own history; no longer able even to distinguish their own history from legends (e.g. Kal•lisꞋtæ vs "Atlantis"). Similarly, the original Mycenæan Greek term Πυλοσιάν was lost. Even the Classical Greeks themselves filled their lacunae with the contemporary international Koine Greek terms.

Koine Greek, in turn, relied on xlitting, from the internationlly used term, which, in this case, derived from the Aramaic (originally xlit, from פְּלִשְׁתִּין; which then became wrongly assumed to be the original—Hebrew—term.

Meanwhile, Hebrew had overtaken Aramaic in YᵊhūdꞋãh and its historical accounts (Ta•na״khꞋ). As a result, the new, pseudo-original, Hebrew term (פְּלִשְׁתִּים) was then back-xlitted, into Koine Greek as the assumed original term. And ancient Greco-Roman world then recorded Παλαιστῖνη & Φυλιστῖνοι—Palestine & Philistines, respectively.

The Hebrew פְּלִשְׁתִּים apparently was then back-xlit  into Post-Alexandrian Hellenist Greek as Φυλιστιίμ; more grammatically correct, Φυλιστῖνοι.

Finally, the Romans mutated this distortion to Παλαιστῖνοι—describing the two "Philistine" colonies:

  1. the Lebanese coastal colony-cluster called Phoenicia, a synonym of Philistia (see link),

  2. the Gaza Strip coastal colony-cluster of the southern Levant (from Eqron to Gaza and southwest across the northern coast of the Sinai, sometime as far west as al-Arish).

  3. and a third, sometimes Egyptian, sometimes not Egyptian, Northern Sinai Coastal Palestina from Pylos to al-Arish (sometimes connected to Gaza Strip Palestina, sometimes not.

135 CE: Hadrian Moves Palestina Province Border South To Envelop YᵊhūdꞋãh

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The (Philistine) Πύλος-ite Hellenic Myce­naean-Greek pottery has long evidenced some previously unknown Philistine connection to Cretan (Minoan)-Greeks. Only recently, however, genetic research,    complemented by humanities-archaeologists’ recent excavations, has surpassed pottery-based conjectures to clarify the Myce­naean (not Arab) roots of the Philistine’s previously “mysterious” origins. These scientific findings have been obscured by the unprecedentedly audacious wave of contra-reality political claims of modern Arab-​”Palestinians” (a now-proven oxymoron). 

Tragically, the Pulossians Aegean hub naval base was the most centrally-located, Hawaii-like volcanic paradise island in the middle of the Ægean Sea. This legendary hub-island home base and port was likely the legendary Atlantis described by Plato—Kal•lisꞋtæ. The eruption cBCE   blew most of their main naval island base out of the water, off the face of the earth and high into the stratosphere, creating volcanic dust clouds that disrupted crops and collapsed economies for several years throughout the eastern Mediterranean coastal countries. In one awful instant, the apocalyptic explosive eruption orphaned the major core naval group of Pulossian "Sea Peoples". Although the Pulossians, themselves, had heeded the pre-eruption events, evacuating everyone before the eruption, In that one horrifying scene they were left bereft of their homes, marooned at sea to find new homes for their families in their coastal colonies around the Mediterranean Basin—or die at sea.

These Pulossians-Phoenicians colonizers only managed to establish two enduring colony-clusters; both centered in major ports along the eastern Mediterranean coasts. The southernmost, Pulossian, colony-cluster strip (the "Philistines") was located between Egypt and the Levant from Eqron to Gaza. They were subsequently absorbed into the 𒆳𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠  (Kaldean  Neo-Babylonian Empire) and the 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶 (Neo-Persian Iranian Empire), and disappeared as a distinct ethnic group by the late BCE 5th century. The northern Pulossians continue to reside in the colony-cluster that is now Lebanon.

All of the foreign peoples—gōyꞋim—impacting Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, then and now, were polytheistic animists and anthropomorphists. Because of Philistine villains GãlᵊyãtꞋ, DᵊlilꞋãh & particularly the religious abominations of Philistine Princess Iy-ZëvꞋël Bat ët  BaꞋal however, "Philistines" have been vilified above other gōyꞋim of the ancient world. Yet, according to Scripture, that's a bad rap. The worst enemies of Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ were AꞋmã•leiq, and Hã•mãnꞋ, and Hitler! The Pulossians were just another—but more cultured and artistic and only trying to survive after the loss of their homeland island—of the many enemies who variously threatened Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ.

As the Pulossians sailed the first maritime courses that opened up the Adriatic, Ægean and Mediterranean Basin to a new maritime world of routine trade, their name was xlit  throughout all the coast-lands of the Mediterranean Basin—who, in turn, spread their fame among their respective Caravan Routes trading partners eastward throughout Mesopotamia.

Building and maintaining supremacy in maritime trade throughout the Mediterranean Basin brought such fortunes that their art and culture became legendary. Increasingly, their profits depended upon maintaining their naval technological superiority.

Cretan (Minoan)-Myce­naean Greek Linear A tablets fm Akrotiri BCE1800-eruption
Click to enlargeCretan (Minoan)-Myce­naean Greek Linear A tablets fm Akrotiri c. BCE 1800- Chronology Of Tanakh, From "The Big Nᵊtiyâh", Live-Link Technology

Πύλος-tine” (Philis-tine/​Pales-tine)—the premier Ægean-Mediterranean Hellenist Greek “Sea People” Thalassocracy; of the ancient era, named the principle city of several of their colonies along the eastern Mediterranean coastlands, from the Sinai to Phoenicia, after their Hellenic Myce­naean-Greek home-city of “Πύλος”—which morphed, via xlits  (and occasional reinterpretation) into Hebrew and other languages, as “Philistine”, and their Levant Greek, Hellenist, colony as “Palestine”.

The Πύλος-ian (Cretan (Minoan), Philistine) Hellenic Myce­naean-Greek pottery has long evidenced some previously unknown Philistine connection to Cretan (Minoan)-Greeks. Only recently, however, genetic research,    complemented by humanities-archaeologists’ recent excavations,  has surpassed pottery-based conjectures to clarify the Myce­naean (not Arab) roots of the Philistine’s previously “mysterious” origins.

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Ancient Caravan Routes Of The Near East
Click to enlargeAncient Caravan Routes Of The Near East

The Myce­naean-Greek Cretan (Minoan) Philistines & Palestine

Cretan (Minoan)-Myce­naeans were an Ægean Islands based, Mediterranean-wide, maritime (pre-Alexandrian Hellenist) Greek—not Arab!—nation. They were originally from ancient Mycenaea, Greece, and migrated to the island of Minoa c. B.C.E. 2,700—more than half a millennium before the first 2 Arabs (Yi•shᵊm•ã•eilꞋ and Ei•sauꞋ-Ë•dōmꞋ) were even born!

Cretan (Minoan) Rea Knossos palace fresco abstract-fish sacred-loop
Click to enlargeRëꞋa—Cretan (Minoan) “Goddess Of The Heavens” (cBCE
While it’s accepted that ReꞋa was the Chief Hellenic (Myce­naean) Cretan (Minoan)-PhilistineMother-goddess of the Heavens”; what is less known is that it was a moon goddessattended by the merman-fish Dãg•ōnꞋ—that ruled the heavens (comparable to the Egyptian precursors, IꞋsis and Hãt-HōrꞋ—”examples which may have exercised influence on [Cretan (Minoan)-Philistine] Crete”). In fact, the original name of the island known as Thera/Santorini was Kal•lisꞋtæ—“moon goddess”, their Cretan (Minoan) sequel to Hãt-HōrꞋ!

Not coincidentally, modern historians take first notice of this previously-unidentified “Sea People” when they intrude into Southeastern Mediterranean / Middle-Eastern history, streaming ashore in the Egyptian Delta and the southern shores of Kᵊna•anꞋ. (While they also colonized Lebanon, there they blended-in with the ã•vᵊr•uꞋ, appearing, until these recent genetic discoveries, to be yet another distinct, mysterious, Atlantian-like “Phoenician”, people.) Their colonizing of their ports-of-call around the southeastern rim of the Mediterranean likely mushroomed following the greatest cataclysm in recorded history, in which the Kal•lisꞋtæ eruption (c. BCE ) orphaned these maritime Cretans (Minoans) (“Sea Peoples”) from their Ægean island-capital home.

Prior to the eruption, the Cretan (Minoan) Παλαιστίνη & Φυλιστῖνοι colonies were certainly reinforced by those from the Myce­naean-Greek capital on the island of (then) Kal•lisꞋtæ.

Archeology of the city of Akrotiri, on Kal•lisꞋtæ Island, has shown that, while the eruption blew away ⅔ of the Atlantis-shaped island (which is now sea), killing all life on the island, there were no human remains at Akrotiri when archeologists first excavated the city in 1967. As the island's volcano became increasingly volatile, issuing rumblings, precursor tremors and perhaps gas vents popping-up unpredictably from the ground prior to its ca. B.C.E. eruption, archeology has demonstrated that the Cretans (Minoans) evacuated Akrotiri and their island-capital of Kal•lisꞋtæ, and escaped the eruption.

Thus, the Cretan (Minoan) Φυλιστῖνοι “Sea People” refugees from the impending eruption streamed ashore, crowding into Crete and colonizing not only Παλαιστίνη on the southern Mediterranean coast of Kᵊna•anꞋ, but also ballooning their Pulossians port-colony of PūlꞋos, on the northern Sinai shore adjacent to the Egyptian Delta. Moreover, they streamed directly onto the shores of the Egyptian Delta itself—where they mixed with Egyptians and still-captive Yi•sᵊr•ã•eil•imꞋ ! Thus, Mōsh•ëhꞋ and Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ also had advance warning that an unprecedented eruption was impending; giving them time to prepare accordingly to use the event as the opportunity to escape the grasp of the Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ.

Now knowing to search for the root meaning in Greek (rather than Hebrew), we know to recognize the similarity of the name of the people to the name of the Myce­naean city of their origin; also the name of at least two of their colonies, “PūlꞋos.

Akrotiri, Cretan (Minoan) 2-tiered home with indoor-plumbing toilet cBCE1700
Click to enlargecBCE 1700 Cretan (Minoan) 2-​story home in Akrotiri with indoor toilet & plumbing (archeological excavation)
Myce­naean-Greek—second migration—"Sea People" were originally from PūlꞋos, in Mycenaea, on the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece; the name of their colonies on the northwestern shore of the Sin•aiꞋ, and the southwestern coast of the Levant (Philistia)—hence "Pylos-tines"! Their name derived from their native Greek Πύλος, which was xlit  into Hebrew as פְּלִשְׁתִּים; not the reverse as nearly unanimously assumed. The Greek root was likely the cognate: πυλών—i.e. extended “seaport vestibules” (i.e. colonies); the ports-of-call, maritime “porches” of the Cretan (Minoan) ”Sea Peoples” Mediterranean-Ægean trade empire.

”Philistines”, then, were the “Sea-Peoples of the Cretan (Minoan) Port-Colonies”; its meaning simply “Cretan (Minoan) Colonists”; the most intellectual, artistic, sophisticated and technologically-advanced people of their era—including the earliest extant toilets connected to indoor-plumbing and municipal sewage system); diametrically opposite to its modern pejorative connotation. (Similar applies to Cretan (Minoan) Cretans.)

Rainbow Rule Modern era—Arab “Palestinians”, An Oxymoron

Today's Arabs posing as "Palestinians", by contrast, 1) weren't Arab before modern PLO terrorist Yassar Arafat, and 2) aren't Greek. Today's Arab "Palestinians" have no ancient origins in central Levant, Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ nor YᵊhūdꞋãh.

Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ is recorded ca. B.C.E. 1600 in stone glyphs in the Egyptian Sinai and documented in the stele of Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ Meren-Ptah recounting his victory over Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ ca. B.C.E. 1231. “The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III claims that an Israeli king named Jehu was forced to pay tribute to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (reign [B.C.E.] 859-824), the obelisk is now in the British Museum.” The Tanakh itself document Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ in the Dead Sea Scrolls as early as B.C.E. the 4th century.

As documented earlier in this glossary entry, Arab claims to be “Palestinians” (Philistines, Peleset or Pelishtin) is directly disproven by scientific DNA-proofs that Philistines were of Greek ancestry, not Arabs. See further 

The term “Palestine”, referring to a region of Syria and the eastern Mediterranean coast and Levant generally (not Canaan particularly!) colonized by Philistines, isn’t recorded at all until B.C.E. 5th century; and then it is only a toll road on major caravan routes (i.e. a tax district) to a foreign ruler, irrespective of countries and nationalities. The term never referred to a country or nationality.

map Kenaan-Syria BCE 1500
Click to enlargeKᵊna•anꞋ cBCE 1500 did not include Phoenicians, who were in Syria (timemaps.com)

Even in 135 C.E., when Israelis (Jews) were expelled from Judea (Jew-dea), the Romans reverted to the previously defined caravan-route tolls (i.e. taxable region) irrespective of any nationality of its resulting Arab squatters.

Yet, the first Muslim Arab doesn’t come into existence until 6 centuries after this!!!

Thus it remained until 1948. From 1948 to 1967, “Palestinian” referred to Jews of the Holy Land; (e/g/, The Jerusalem Post, before then, was the “Palestinian Post”).

Only since the 1967 war have modern Arabs, with no connection ethnically, linguistically or historically to ancient Palestine or Greek Philistines, who squatted in the vacated Levant after the Roman Expulsion of Jews in 135 CE, baselessly arrogated this term to themselves.

Prior to the 1960s, Arabs of the Holy Land insisted they were not “Palestinians” but, rather, "One Unified, Pan-Arab Tribe" that included all Arabs. Arabs of the Holy Land, even by their own insistence until the latter part of the 20th century, are no different from the Arabs in Israel’s 22 neighboring Arab countries.

In fact, in the modern era until 1967, “Palestinian” referred not to Arabs (who were insisting they were no different from their one Pan-Arab tribe) but to Jews returning to their homeland! E.g. The Jewish newspaper “The Palestinian Post” is now known as “The Jerusalem Post”.

There is no connection between modern Middle-Eastern Semitic Arabs who claim to be “Palestinians” and the ancient European Greek Philistines. The only connection Arabs of the Holy Land have to "Palestine" is that the Arab neighbors of the Levant exploited, squatted and occupied the forcibly-vacated Holy Land after the Romans renamed Judaea to “Palestine” and expelled the Jews in 135 C.E. Before that time, the Hellenist Roman—goy•imꞋ— name, "Palestine", referred only to two, non-contiguous regions: one in Syria and the other along the southern coast of the Levant, עַזָּה (occupied by the Greek Philistines). The name “Palestine” had never referred to Israel or Yᵊhūd•ãhꞋ located in-between, which had been occupied exclusively by the Israelis/​Jews who conquered the Kᵊna•an•imꞋ and absorbed all of their survivors to become the aggregate indigenous people of the Levant. Ever since, only the ignorant, Hellenists and idolatrous miso-Judaics, call it “Palestine”.

So, if these local non-Jews are Philistines, then they aren't Arabs; they're just foreign Greeks with no claim to Israel—fake Arabs!

Modern Arabs occupying parts of Israel are almost entirely Muslim Jihadists implacably determined to annihilate Jews of Israel. Accordingly, they are more accurately designated not by a Roman name having no etymological connection whatsoever to Arabs, and misinforms who they really are, but by a name that truthfully expresses their Arab and Muslim fealty: “Palestanis”.

Pay it forward! Quote & Cite:

Yirmeyahu Ben-David. Pulossians (update). Netzarim Jews Worldwide (Ra'anana, Israel). http://www.netzarim.co.il/Shared/Glossary/Pulossians.htm (Access date).

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Nᵊtzãr•imꞋ… Authentic