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Updated: 2013.09.18

Cartouche: i-mun-n akhenem-khat-t shepsi-t
Cartouche: birth name of Khat-shepsetHover cursor over glyphs for translation (read in 3 rows, top to bottom and as ideograms face: {i-mun-n} {akhenem-khat-t} {shepsi-t-[3 vertical strokes]} (Amun-akhenem Khat-shepset} ("Amun-born, Foremost of Noble-Overseers"); photo of her obelisk at Karnak temple.
Glyph: phonogram i/y (papyrus reed) Glyph: phonogram mn (a senat game board) Glyph: phonogram n (water ripples) Glyph: phonogram khat (lion's right forequarter; foremost) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending Glyph: phonogram akhenem (stone nekhnem [oil] pitcher; poured out, having given birth) Glyph: ideogram multiple, plural indicator (three vertical strokes), not pronounced Glyph: phonogram sheps (seated noble-blood holding flail; noble-overseer) Glyph: phonogram t (a loaf of bread), probably a fem. indicator ending

Khat-shepset; "Foremost of Noble-Overseers" (looks like a picture, and it is, but cartouche at left is the name, in ancient Egyptian hieroglyph: "Khat-shepset" – not Arabic (post-Islam "Egyptian"), Hebrew or English letters; see caption for details).

Cartouche: Khat-shepset apotheotic name
Cartouche: apotheotic name of Khat-shepset


Hover cursor over glyphs for translation(Red Chapel wall, Karnak).
Glyph: ideogam Ra (Egyptian supreme sun god), solar disk Glyph (S39): ideogam [not pronounced] shepherd's crook scepter (ruler indicator) Glyph: ideogam maat (order, justice, truth), seated woman with one knee up Glyph: ideogam ka (soul, psyche), bull horns or raised arms

Dating the Chronology of the Tanakh, from the "Big " Live-Link of ancient Israel or Egypt is notoriously difficult. The reign of rulers during a period of peace, or longer than usual, might be described as having reigned "40 years," hyperbole for a generation that, in our modern perspective, may have been considerably less than 40 actual years. Rulers who disapproved of their predecessor might claim his predecessor's entire reign – resulting in double-counting of years now, a misleading stretching of the Chronology of the Tanakh, from the "Big " Live-Link.

For different reasons, archeologists aren't any more precise. A few shards thrown in a hole, or dug up from a hole, millennia ago can alter the strata in which shards "dated with (over-) confidence" based on the strata in which they are found. This kind of thing can throw off the dating of an entire site and cascade to other sites, etc.

Both the literature and archeology provide a general time frame. But Arts degree archeologists, swayed by an "Indiana Jones" syndrome or hunger for fame, routinely exaggerate their precision.

The occasional anchor occurs when the historical documents contain a reference to some physical phenomenon that can be dated with reasonable accuracy. Reference to conjunctions (e.g., an "ἄστρον" in the east; cf. The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) notes 2.0.1 through 2.2.1) enables scientists to pinpoint things like the birth of Ribi Yᵊho•shua (B.C.E. 0007.05.29 – matching the other descriptions and nowhere near the birthday of the Persian Sungod: Dec. 25). Careful analysis of the text with a sufficient knowledge of the Judaic calendar enables scholars to pinpoint exact date of the death of Ribi Yᵊho•shua (again, see NHM notes 28.1.1 through 28.1.2).

Similarly, the eruption at Thera / Santorini, which occurred within a century or so of popular dates of the Yᵊtzi•âh, is the anchor to which both Egyptian and Bible chronologies must be tethered, and implications must cascade from that to other chronologies. The consensus of scientists have dated this eruption to c BCE , which I've used for the date of the Yᵊtzi•âh. Recent research is arguing for c BCE . The proper dating of the Yᵊtzi•âh must be anchored to the current scientific consensus; and, if necessary, move to stay pinned to the scientific consensus. This no less includes (see below) relating (or dis-relating) the reigns of Khat-shepset and Tut-moses III to the same date.

Par•oh Who Adopted moses: Tut-moses I

(Whose Princess-Daughter Pulled moses from the Nile)
Paroh (BCE1528-18) Gen A-Kheper-ka-Re Djehutymes I Tut-Moses I
Click to enlargeCartouche in wall (center): Par•oh Tut- moses I, Ah-kheper-ka-Ra ("Resurrected Soul of Ra") – father of Princess-cum-Par•ohKhât-shepset and step-father of Egyptian Prince Mosh•ëh.
Paroh (BCE1528-18) Gen A-Kheper-ka-Re Djehutymes I Tut-Moses IParoh (BCE1528-18) Gen A-Kheper-ka-Re Djehutymes I Tut-Moses I
Mummy – Egyptian General and Chief of Staff, later Par•oh Tut- moses I. Click images to enlarge.

The greatest enigma in Egyptian history is 14C dated to c BCE , and revolves around the identification of the coeval Par•oh. The enigma emanating from the son of Par•oh Khat-shepset, Tut-moses III, which has baffled scholars, may be related. 20 years after she died (why the 20 year wait?), her son erased her from almost all of the historical record! Why did he do this? And why did he wait until 20 years after she died?

Only two events in Egyptian history rise to the level of world-changing, monumentally historical proportion—both happening "coincidentally" (what is the probability of that?!?) within a window of a century or so of Par•oh Khat-shepset:

  1. the eruption of Thera / Santorini c BCE —clearly the most accurately and reliably dated, and

  2. the Yᵊtzi•âh (the Exodus)!

Only advances in 14C dating will tell us whether the humiliating Yᵊtzi•âh occurred 20 years after her death (Shᵊm•ot 2.23), perhaps explaining the attempts by Tut-moses III to shift the blame for the Yᵊtzi•âh from himself to his mother—who had been the intimate power behind Sen-en-mut moses. 14C dating will inform us whether, perhaps, she was complicit with Sen-en-mut moses in treating his people, the Hebrews, favorably (in extreme contrast to his own harsh suppression of the Hebrews)—and then expunge his mother from the Egyptian historical record!

Nothing even remotely similar is recorded in Egyptian history – ever!

Princess Becomes Par•oh: Khat-shepset

(Par•oh Who Was Kind to the Hebrews?)
Queen Paroh Khat-shepset
Click to enlargeQueen-Par•oh (c BCE -) Khat-shepset Kᵊruv (ancient-egypt co uk Metropolitan Museum)
Khat-shepset's Temple, built by Sen-en-mut
Click to enlargeTemple of Par•oh Khat-shepset – remarkably similar to the design of both the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh -Ri•shon and Shein•i designed & built by her lover, Sen-en-mut.

Par•oh Tut-moses III

(New Par•oh Who Persecuted the Hebrews?)
Paroh Yetziah Men-kheper-re Tut-Moses III basalt Luxor Museum
Click to enlargePar•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âhTut-moses III (basalt, Luxor Museum)
Paroh 2278-2311 (BCE1483-50 Yetziah53) Nefer-khepers Tut-Moses III child of Ra cartouche
Click to enlargePar•oh (c BCE -; Yᵊtzi•âh c BCE ) Tut-moses {III} Nefer-khepers, son of Ra

Paroh Men-kheper-re Tut-Moses III cartouches; mortuary temple, W Valley, Luxor
Click to enlargePar•oh (c BCE -; Yᵊtzi•âh: c BCE ) Tut-moses {III} cartouches.
Middle: Men-kheper-Ra (Great Creat­or Ra) naswet bity;
Bottom: Nefer-Kheper Tut-moses {III}, child of Ra (mortuary temple, West Valley, Luxor)

The account of Par•oh of the Yᵊtzi•âh is found in Ta•na"kh, beginning in Shᵊm•ot

Egyptian historical records document that the firstborn son of Par•oh Tut-moses 3rd, Amun-em-khat, predeceased him, perhaps sacrificed by his father, Tut-moses III, to their god Amun, according to the ancient Middle East tradition (see Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 3.27, the precedent broken by Av•râ•hâm at the A•qeid•âh) as Tut-moses III's ultimate plea to his god, in his father's final attempt to suppress the Hebrews – the "Tenth Plague." The sacrifice of his firstborn son, and its failure to bring success, too, Tut-moses III blamed on his mother, Khat-shepset?

Death of Khat-shepset

Details of the death of Khat-shepset, including photographs of her mummy, dental x-ray (used to estimate her age at death), and canopic jar are found in the 5760 section of Pâ•râsh•at wâ-Ei•râ.:

  1. From the Nᵊtzâr•im website NQ (i.e. Netzarim Quarter, home page) at www.netzarim.co.il, click the Beit Knesset icon in the Click n Go navigation panel on the left,

  2. Next click the Parashat Shavua icon at the top right and

  3. Finally, find the wâ-Ei•râ. link under the Shᵊm•ōt Heading

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