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Updated: 2023.09.21 

Upper Palaeolithic Age Petroglyphs On Kᵊrē•të

(≈End Of Last Ice Age, ≈8.5–5 Ka )

Kᵊrē•të (Linear-B) 

MiddleEast BCE05500&2629 Out of Adamah BeneiNoakh
Click to enlargecBCE 3000–1150 ᴷH•ãrꞋrian-Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan (Kit•imꞋ); cBCE 1450 confederated with, then eclipsed by Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•ans, finally eclipsed by Pūlossians Mediterranean Maritime Trade Routes

Kᵊrē•të (Crete)—the Mediterranean Island key to understanding the origins and development of the first people to populate the Mediterranean coastlines and navigate the Mediterranean Sea: labeled the "Sea Peoples" by ancient Egypt, fictitious "Minoans" by modern "Indiana Jones" explorers (early arts-degreed archaeologists) and an extra-terrestrial alien super-civilization by modern science fiction enthusiasts.

Crete-Turkey-Greece 260Ma (Stampfli)
Click to enlargeCrete-Turkey-Greece 260 Ma (graphic: Prof. Gérard Stampfli, Professeur Honoraire, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Lausanne, Switzerland) 

This investigation simultaneously reveals its shared origins with A•dãm•ãhꞋ; pehaps even the oral lore regarding Gan ÆdꞋën back when our planet comprised primarily Pangea, with Gondwana and Eur-Asia on opposite sides of the planet, and the Neotethys Ocean.

Understanding Ta•na״khꞋ-era Mediterranean Basin peoples, civilizations and seafaring depends upon properly identifying the autochthonous Kᵊrē•tëns and their original relationships with neighboring lands—which geophysicists regard as the most astounding, complex and difficult to understand on the planet.

These factors defined the peoples around the ancient Mediterranean Basin coastlines, their evolution, and determined the development of their respective civilizations. If I can even open this Pandora's Box—the evolution of the physical planet paralleled against the evolution of humans—a little more than it is, perhaps it will reveal new perspectives that are logical (science-compatible; i.e. compatible with the Omni-scient Creator of Ta•na״khꞋ) to further explore and refine.

This is the DërꞋëkh יְהוָׂה of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ, Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ, Mōsh•ëhꞋ, Hi•lælꞋ ha-Za•qænꞋ, ha-Nã•siꞋ, RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa Bën-Yo•seiphꞋ (and Einstein, for that matter)—not any mystics or clergy of mortals on the planet! No supernatural-oriented clergy or "divinity" degree type anywhere on the planet is even headed in the right direction! Our Omni-scient Creator of our universe is Perfectly Nature-al!!! That's the True definition of Logical and Scientific!!! Consult Dᵊvãr•imꞋ 30.11-14 (& 15-20); Yi•rᵊmᵊyãhꞋū 31.33; 31.26-36 and Yō•ælꞋ 2.23-4.3. Follow the Law of the Omniscient, not any mortal(s)! Become Enlightened, then Enlighten! Become a Bën- or Bat-Ōr ("son or daughter of Light", the only proper definition of a Jew), instead of remaining a Bën- or Bat-KhōꞋshëkh (son or daughter of darkness)!

When one observes gullible humans believing in physicomorphic powers of mystical incenses and aromas, colored lights, sparkly rocks, occult symbols, supernatural chants or mysterious handwavium, it is clear that evolution has also passed along to our day a very large percentage of every race of early Hominids who lack sufficient desire and commitment to develop their nëphꞋësh to relate to their Creator, יְהוָׂה (Existant)!

Until one at least relates to this from a natural (nature-al), scientific, perspective, (s)he grossly misunderstands and perverts the best account that ancient, written-language era proto-scientists were capable of understanding to pass down to us.

Elephants on Crete

sci-hub: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(02)00451-0

were plentiful in Gondwanan Africa — Hadjisterkotis, Eleftherios; Masala, Bruno; Reese, David, S. (2000). "The origin and extinction of the large endemic Pleistocene mammals of Cyprus". Biogeographia. 21. doi:10.21426/B6110069 – via ResearchGate.

Earliest Physical Evidence of Human Presence on Kᵊrē•të

"In the Asphendou cave near the White Mountains of western Crete… [a calcite flowstone] inscribed with complex geometric and figural rock art (petroglyphs) was discovered in the 1960s … palaeontological and iconographic evidence to confirm a Palaeolithic [≈625 Ka – end of last ice age ≈8.5 Ka] date (most likely the ‘Upper’ Palaeolithic) for the earliest carvings." 

"Palaeolithic artists represented what they knew, in this case a prevalent species of Cretan dwarf deer (Candiacervus), which became extinct in the Upper Palaeolithic." 

"…several new Palaeolithic sites have been discovered throughout the Aegean basin (Carter et al., 2014; Çilingiroğlu et al., 2016; Galanidou et al., 2016). 

38.4 Megennia Gap From Continental Crunch (41.2 Ma ) To Parallel Evolution of Homo (2.8 Ma )

Still, that leaves a huge gap of ≈38.4 megennia prior to the petroglyphs, a very long period about which we know very little concerning the earliest species of Genus Homo (humans), and an even larger gap back to the subfamily Homininae preceding them; while these petroglyphs writers of Kᵊrē•të left their imprint <1 Ma (<1 megennium ago)—a mere drop in the shot glass ago!

From the time of the first Homo sapiens until the present stage of technology has consumed >300 millennia (>0.3 megennium). One might, therefore, expect that a similar time period would be required from the time of the first Hominids until, say, the first raft was built enabling inter-island travel among the nearby Cimmerian Terranes Islands.

However, it's also true that, if the first of a species doesn't succeed at least to the point of reproduction, then the species goes extinct at that point. So I turn the question on its head: which came first, new species capable of some distant future success? Or successes (discoveries developed into proto-cultures) that were then shared within the band, propelling their kind to advantage? Which determined which? I submit it is the same today. A discovery leads to a comparatively immediate leap and advantage (though not necessarily for the brainy discoverer, but for the individual best positioned to take advantage of the discovery; think the WW-II-era inventors of television and computers who died in poverty, or Edison vs his nameless inventors). Compared to megannia relative to physical evolution, the advantage of a breakthrough technology propelling a particular band or strain to success, happens immediately; perhaps 1-2 generations or less (e.g., industrial revolution, electricity & communications, atomic energy, rocketry, information processing & the internet).

Further, how far might we expect ancient mammals to be able to migrate over open sea? Even today, polar bears have been documented swimming nearly 700 km (≈450 mi) of open sea in a single journey! While the polar bear almost certainly far exceeds the capability of any early Hominids, the Pelopónnese, Cretan and Anatolian Islands of the Cimmerian Terranes do not appear to have approached such a distance from each other at any point in their megannial transoceanic drift. At the beginning, they were one contiguous tract of land in what is now South America (Pangea, Gondwana). Furthermore, some mammals living along the coeval east Neotethys Ocean coast would have been native predators of various seafoods: harvesting edible seaweeds, digging mollusks, killing crabs and, perhaps mimicking seabirds, the earliest terrestrial mammalian fishers. Moreover, the ability to span the emerging gaps between the newly forming islands may have started as wading across creeks, allowing even lower animals to adapt and migrate across in the early stages as the gaps grew imperceptibly over countless lifetimes.

Humans (Genus Homo): Not Out Of A Cookie-Cutter

Evolutionary Tree Of Species Homo sapiens

Hominoidea Evolutonary Tree
Parvorder Hominidæ (Hominoidea) Evolutonary Tree

The evolutionary tree of Homo sapiens threads back to mammals in the Carboniferous Period >300 Ma! At that point, what is today the island of Crete, like its cultural neighbor modern Turkey, was then still the unbroken eastern seaboard of Pangea, prior to breaking off into the Cimmerian Terranes Islands and drifting northeast (from modern South America), eventually to arrive at what today comprises Africa, Israel and the eastern coastal lands of the Mediterranean.

Anatolian Fault Lines
Click to enlargeAnatolian Geological Zones & Fault Lines (Photo credit: Donna Whitney, UMinn) 

Prior to the break-off from Pangea, modern Pelopónnese, Crete and Turkey were neighbors of a single land mass, along with their genetically related indigenous cousin Mammals and Primate progenitors of various strains of Homo sapiens—millions of years before they drifted into any contact with European (northern) Greece! 

Geneticists have found that countless Homo sapiens, "modern humans", walking the earth today carry various Genus Homo species DNA as part of their own DNA in addition to sapiens! These various Homo species originate from scattered places from Gondwana (ancient South America and Africa) to the Eur-Asian continent on the opposite side of the planet!

All evidence points to shared Mammalian ancestry in Pangea evolving simultaneously and independently, in parallel, in various parts of the world—not excluding Gondwana and the Cimmerian Terranes Islands (including Crete!)—to Primates. No differently from other Primates in different parts of the world where conditions permitted, Primates branched into a variety of:

…Evolution of Mammals & Primates…
≈32.5 Megaannia After The Continents "Big Crunch"
9–8.7 Ma: Cimmerian Terranes (not European) Anatolian Female Homininae Anadoluvius turkae

8.7 Ma Homininae Anadoluvius turkae female cranium anterior
Click to enlarge8.7 Ma Homi­ni­nae Anado­lu­vi­us tur­kae—​Ana­to­li­an (Tur­kish) fe­male cranium anterior

Archaeologists are still uncertain whether Ms. Turkey of 8.7 Ma is genus Homo (human), Pan (chimpanzee) or Gorilla. The distinctions are ever diminishing and blurred. In any case, archaeologists are tracing Anatolian (Turkish: Cimmerian Terranes-African— not European nor Asian) subfamily Homininae (human evolutionary lineage) ever further back in time. It's becoming increasingly clearer that distinct and separate evolutions of genus Homo occurred in Pangean Laurasia (Eur-Asia) as differentiated from the Cimmerian Terranes African "Out of Africa" evolution of genus Homo. I plan to discuss the pertinent recent paper  in the appropriate (Kit•imꞋ/​Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan: Anatolian, modern Turkish) webpage.

2 Ma To 30 Ka: Evolution of Pre-Sapien genus Homo Humans

Homo erectus Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo Denisovan; illus. Maayan Harel, Hebrew University, Yᵊrushalayim Homo naledi Homo floresiensis
Homo erectus a species of humans, (2 Ma—100 Ka, Gondwana/Africa) Homo heidelbergensis a species of humans, (700—200 Ka, Gondwana/Africa) Homo neanderthalensis a species of humans (430—40 Ka, Eur-Asia) Homo Denisova a species of hu­mans, (daughter of Denisovan m. & Ne­an­derthal f.; 400—​30 Ka, Eur-​Asia) Homo naledi a species of humans, (250 Ka, Gondwana/Africa) Homo floresiensis a species of humans, (190—50 Ka, Eur-Asia)

½Ma—These Human Folks Above Were Building Crude Log Cabins!!! 

Click to enlargeTheorized migrations of pre-Homo sapien homi­nins (archaic humans) from the African continent (Homo heidelbergensis) vs homi­nins from the Eur-Asian continent. (Map by John D. Croft; edited by Yirmeyahu Ben-David (2023) to remove arrowheads of uncertain directions)

"Neanderthals are known to contribute up to 1-4% of the genomes of non-African modern humans, depending on what region of the wor[l]d your ancestors come from, and modern humans who lived about 40,000 years ago have been found to have up to 6-9% Neanderthal DNA (Fu et al., 2015). Because Neanderthals likely evolve outside of Africa (no Neanderthal fossils have been found in Africa to date) it was thought that there would be no trace of Neanderthal DNA in African modern humans. However, a study in 2020 demonstrated that there is Neanderthal DNA in all African Homo sapiens (Chen at el., 2020). This is a good indicator of how human migration out of Africa worked: that Homo sapiens did not leave Africa in one or more major dispersals, but that there was gene flow back and forth over time that brough[t] Neanderthal DNA into Africa. … Neanderthals have also indirectly contribute[d] to the genome of modern humans of African descent via ancient modern human migrations back into Africa" 

Unidentified Eur-Asian Continent "Denisovans"

According to "Chris Stringer, a professor and research leader in Human Origins at The Natural History Museum in London…[,] It also appears that our ancestors may have interacted more widely with Denisovans than Neanderthals… Relatively small groups of early modern humans interbred with Neanderthals in western Eurasia and then spread across Eurasia and beyond, passing on that level of acquired Neanderthal DNA to descendant populations,… In the case of the Denisovans, it looks like they were genetically much more diverse, and they intermixed separately in different locations with differentiating early modern populations, hence the more varied patterns we see today." 

Archaeologists argue that, during the early periods of this African-EurAsian (Neanderthal) DNA fusion, neither African nor Eur-Asian humans possessed the marine technology to build rafts, much less ships capable of navigating open sea to the island of Crete until perhaps 75 Ka. Assuming advance maritime technology in shipbuilding, with no archaeological ship-building evidence whatsoever, based simply on their need to explain the presence of tools 100 Ka earlier, cannot be justified. Thus, groups of either freely migrating between Eur-Asia and Africa must be demonstrated, not assumed. No sound basis has emerged to justify the assumption of migration between Eur-Asia and Africa. A fortiori, since they weren't capable of open seafaring between Africa and Crete, nor between Eur-Asia and Crete, then they certainly did not migrate between Eur-Asia and Africa! This requires that "Neanderthal DNA in all African Homo sapiens" had to have occurred before the African continent approached Eur-Asia ≈41.2 Ma! And that leaves only the possibility that these DNA types emerged in parallel—probably in more than one case, independently, and further up the ancestral tree—in evolving pre-Homo primates.

A fortiori, Hominids of various strains had various migrating capabilities and mental strategies. We may tend to think of evolution as a linear progression. But reality dictates that there were different sub-strains with different capabilities, both mental and physical, living coevally—just as today. We tend to forget that there exist today over 200 primitive human tribes about whom we know very little, still living as primitive humans; while at the opposite end of the spectrum, coeval humans have gone to the moon and live in orbit around our planet. While written proto-language petroglyphs haven't been found before 1 Ma, oral proto-language  superior to the basic communications of today's bands of chimps or monkeys, surely preceded Hominids. Birds have surprised scientists by communicating to other birds basic words learned from humans. Monkeys have communicating to each other adaptations learned from humans, while whales seem to communicate perhaps globally. Discoveries of the use of tools by mammals (e.g., otters) and birds periodically surprises scientists. Are we not to regard Hominids superior to these?

It was likely quite early in their evolution that Hominids learned how to improve their fishing by paddling out a ways on a log; from which making a dug-out, raft and paddles was certainly not 49 Ma away! Nor was the washing ashore of a strange raft, which they hadn't made, 49 Ma away, telling them there were neighbors, probably on a similar island—and within rafting distance. Inter-island travel, trade and learning between these islanders (Anatolia-Crete-Cyprus, et al.) would certainly have followed; fostering a shared proto-culture.

How much more ability might we expect of the brightest among early Hominids to use tools and communicate information about a culture surrounding tool use, locations of food sources and seasonal migrations—and reading bird and ocean mammals migrations to keep track of locations of neighboring islands, and seasonal inter-island migration for food; perhaps even a shared tradition of notions about their shared origins?

Super-Civilization Emerges In Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha, Echoed In Kᵊrē•të

Even today, archaeological scientists marvel and scratch their heads trying to explain what Anatolian super-civilization could have built Göbekli Tepe at the apex of the Fertile Crescent ≈9.5 Ka – 8 Ka!!! Who was this original Mediterranean, technologically advanced, seagoing super-civilization (called "Sea People" by the Egyptians and mislabeled by modern explorers as "Minoans"?

Were they neighboring relatives from the Cimmerian Terranes islands, which broke off from proto-South America in Gondwana, Pangea ≈270 Ma and drifted imperceptibly slowly across the Palaeotethys (now the Atlantic & Mediterranean Sea) until ≈50 Ma? 

Researchers of genetics and biologists examining the evolution of pre-Neolitic Homo sapiens and civilizations haven't been cross-talking enough with professors of geotechtonics, geodynamics and other scientists; while, until the very recent advent of PhD's in Archaeology Science (and perhaps History Science), arts-degreed historians and explorer-archaeologists, with few exceptions, were educationally unprepared to work in the staples of day-to-day scientific methodology. Yet, the periods under recent study increasingly depend upon data from the time our earliest ancestors: the emergence of the primate clade (euarchontoglire)—≈88–100 Ma,! During the interim the surface of the earth has passed through major geological, planet-wide mutations that allow only a select few geoscientists to show how . Yet, these great changes in the face of our planet haven't been examined in studying the origins of civilizations.

When our earliest ancestor primate clade () emerged, the African supercontinental plate of Pangea, Gondwana  broke away from the South American supercontinental plate, pushing ahead of it the Cimmerian Terranes (comprising, inter alia, Israel, Crete & Turkey). Together, these plates drifted northeastward counterclockwise until, finally, forming what is today the Dardanelles abutting (where it now continues to subduct beneath) southern Europe including—wait for it—what, still later, became Greece! (The abrading of these great supercontinental plates likely triggered the Great Flooding of the Black Sea.) Thus, Hellenists who argue that Crete was first colonized and civilized by Greeks rather than Anatolians (Turks), whatever their scholarly creds, are simply ignorant! The primate ancestors of today's African, Israeli, Arabian and Turkish Homo sapiens "grew up together", evolving into Homo sapiens autochthonously and continuously, in Pangea; while, until as recently as cBCE 1400, no Greeks existed even in !!! Until cBCE 1400, ancestors of Europeans and future Greeks lived in European Hunic-terranes on the then-far-side of the planet from today's Crete and Turkey; separated by the Great Neotethys (Proto-Atlantic) Ocean!!!

As this supercontinental drift began to infinitesimally separate Crete from Turkey, the related autochthonous primates evolved into the related autochthonous Homo sapiens of both Crete and Turkey—with their shared embryonic culture, civilization and awareness of each other and their increasingly distant locations—separated by the Mediterranean. The first human to self-identify as Greek, by contrast, wouldn't come into existence until megannia  later, by which time the Turks (Anatolians) had developed the most technologically advanced supercivilization on earth—along with developing the ships, at first just a raft over a a channel (which would grow into the Atlantic Ocean), to stay in contact with each other as the distance between them infinitesimally increased over megannia!

Emergence Of Anthropoids & Early Humans (Hominidae)

The Kit•imꞋ (Anatolian, Turkish) or Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•an  (exonym: Phoenicians) were all areas of the Cimmerian Terranes islands, on the far side of the planet from European Greece until ≈50 Ma—the time, over tens of thosands of years, when anthropoids, then Hominidae, began emerging among mammals wherever conditions were favorable.

This is about the time when the Kit•imꞋ (Anatolia, Turkey), Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•ans  (exonym: Phoenicians) of the Cimmerian Terranes islands slow-mo crashed and subducted, imperceptibly slowly, into and under the European continent—first meeting Europe and Greece. Combined with rising waters from glacial melting Crete reached its present island location and form in the Mediterranean Sea.

Current Arts-Degreed Archaeologists' Major Error

Applying new techniques to dating petroglyph writing, discovered a few decades ago on the Mediterranean island of Crete, Prof. Thomas Strasser and his associates have contributed significantly to the ancient picture of autochthonous Hominids in the Mediterranean Basin by "confirming" that flint tool-making on Crete dates back ≈175 Ka.

However, Strasser et al. then assumed that "The long period of separation (more than 5,000,000 years) of Crete from any landmass implies that the early inhabitants of Crete reached the island using seacraft capable of open-sea navigation and multiple journeys - a finding that pushes the history of seafaring in the Mediterranean back by more than 100,000 years and has important implications for the dispersal of early humans." 

Conflict With bᵊReish•itꞋ Account?

The apparent conflict between the first mitochondrial Khaū•ãhꞋ and, 60 millennia later, the first ÕdãmꞋ, is briefly covered in their respective explanatory pages.

The origins of ÕdãmꞋ and Khaū•ãhꞋ weren't clearly understood by the scribes who recorded bᵊReish•itꞋ, and, even in our modern era, this still remains exacerbated by our own poor understanding of the origins of Homo sapiens.

Sparse findings of evidence suggests that the first Genus Homo was female (Khaū•ãhꞋ) and scientists have discovered no evidence of males of Genus Homo for the next 60 Ka! Of course, absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Tomorrow, a coeval male bone from Genus Homo could be found, or even a male bone from Genus homo predating Khaū•ãhꞋ (i.e. ÕdãmꞋ)!

In the interim, however, the evidence suggests that, for the first 60 millennia, Genus Homo (human) women produced only Tribe Homininæ males (and likely also Tribe Homininæ females) as well as (perhaps only rarely) Genus Homo (human) daughters; never Genus Homo (human) sons who survived to reproduce. The resulting situation was a new strain of Genus Homo (human) women with no Genus Homo (human) men. Thus, Genus Homo (human) women could only reproduce with Tribe Homininæ males (who were not human men), producing no Genus Homo (human) men.

It was only after some evolutionary DNA change occurred 60 millennia after the emergence of Genus Homo (human) women gave birth to Genus Homo (human) sons. This apparently occurred either

from whom the first Genus Homo (human) men emerged.

The initial emergence of Genus Homo human men (as well as the initial emergence of Genus Homo human women) likely occurred in more than one combination of species, and in more than one place, independently within the same general era. Further speciation (evolution) occurs continuously.

ÕdãmꞋ's Deep Sleep, bᵊReish•itꞋ 2.20–23

Throughout the passage, the Hebrew tradition properly translates הָֽאָדָֽם as the collective form (i.e. humans, humanity, humankind—Genus Homo).

The original language (Hebrew) of bᵊReish•itꞋ 2.20 makes clear that "So ã•dãmꞋ [i.e. (Genus) Homo males collectively, humankind] named all of the beasts and birds of ha-shã•maꞋyim… but for -ã•dãmꞋ [the Genus Homo male, the human male collectively and specifically] no helper-counterpart was found."

"Helper-counterpart" can be understood as "a counterpart mate capable of giving birth to a surviving and reproducing male Genus Homo (human man)… was not found".

Verse 21 then becomes obvious: "So יְהוָׂה ël•ōh•imꞋ caused the (women-only human) Genus Homo side-species (species) sapiens to sleep"—for 60 millennia, until [יְהוָׂה] prepared (some DNA combination of) a מִצַּלְעֹתָ֔יו (a side-species—erectus, neanderthalensis, etc., or some hybrid combination) and closed-up that 60 millennia hole in reproducing a complete Homo species sapiens from some Homo side-species (not an individual human's side).

Nᵊphil•imꞋ (Genus Homo All Other Than species sapiens)
bᵊReish•itꞋ 6.1–4

In fact, the account of Nᵊphil•imꞋ may confirm this 60 Ka separation between the first female Homo sapiens, Khaū•ãhꞋ—when only bᵊn•eiꞋ--ël•ōh•imꞋ: Nᵊphil•imꞋ creations/children of ël•ōh•imꞋ = Genus Homo males other than species sapiens) existed to procreate with female Homo sapiens for 60 Ka—until the first, immediate, male ancestor to Homo sapiens, ÕdãmꞋ, evolved!

So no,"The long period of separation (more than 5,000,000 years) of Crete from any landmass" does not imply that Crete had to be originally settled by seafaring visitors to the island! Such implication requires assuming that the first male Homo sapiens and the first female Homo sapiens were coevals from whom all subsequent Homo sapiens have derived (only thereafter dispersing from a single origin)—a simplistic misreading of the Scriptural description.

Ergo, I maintain that there's no defensible reason to assume that the Kᵊrē•të islanders weren't autochthonous to Kᵊrē•të Island! They didn't need to make a sea voyage to get to Kᵊrē•të Island, they were born there and, for eons, knew only inter-island fishing & trading with neighboring Cimmerian Terranes Islands, especially their closest islands: Peloponesia and Anatolia. For all of those eons they knew nothing of Eur-Asia or Greece.

In other words, Superfamily Hominidæ evolved on Kᵊrē•të like several, probably many, other places on the planet and further evolved into one or more of Hominid genera, etc. There's no strong reason to believe that any Hominids had to travel to Crete from anywhere else in order to initially populate the island with ancestors of Homo sapiens! They more likely evolved from their autochthonous Mammalian, then Primate, etc. ancestors right on the island, just like many other places where the conditions were within limits.

OutOf Continental Collisions & Animal Evolution

New species Sapiens: ÕdãmꞋ & Khaū•ãhꞋ

This set of conditions suggests that the emergence of the first Homo sapiens may have also occurred in other, perhaps many, places; independently (from very similar conditions), in roughly the same epoch, in every habitable part of the planet. We just haven't found enough evidence yet to piece it together. The argument continues among scientists: how human were the various Genus Homo species? Including chimpanzees (closest to sapiens)? Orangutans? (I can't help thinking, despite etymologies, that these orange Hominidæ are the origin of the word "orange".) Gorillas? Perhaps their respective "human rights" activists have a point?

Cimmerian Terranes Islanders Navigate Increasing Inter-Island Ocean Expanses
Over Eons, Pelopónnesia, Kᵊrē•të & Anatolia Autochthonous Islanders Drift Maritime Technology To Mediterranean Sea & Eur-Asia

Ascribing open-ocean seafaring capabilities to these early peoples (Strasser et al.) allows that Anatolian islanders (modern western Turks) were similarly visiting and trading via inter-island ocean seafaring too, identifying them as autochthonous to Anatolia. Further, not only did they, in such case, derive from the same ancestors, it would then be far more plausible that the two, along with their neighboring Cimmerian Terranes Pelopónnesian Islanders, at some point before nearing the Eur-Asian continent (including what is northern Greece) much earlier achieved the far-easier inter-island travels and trade—the beginnings of a civilization and culture eons before ever approaching the Eur-Asian continent! Because of Anatolia-Island's greater size and natural resources, we should then expect the resulting civilization and culture, which was partially shared by Crete and Pelopónnese (absorbed as southern Greece probably during the Classic Greek period) to be primarily Anatolian, with its heavy influence on Crete and, perhaps to a lesser degree, on Pelopónnese Islands.

Classical Greeks Arrogate & Displace Autochthonous Anatolians

Greeks and Europeans argue that the first Hominoids on Crete only occurred hundreds of millions of years after the Cimmerian Terranes Islands broke off from South America and drifted across what is now the Atlantic Ocean to crash into Europe—finally meeting European-Greek colonists.

Yet, Pelopónnesians, Kᵊrē•tans & Anatolians all comprised a technologically-advanced, seagoing super-civilization predating the existence of Greece by eons! The entire confederation of related "Seagoing Peoples" evolved independently within the Cimmerian Terranes Islands eons before approaching the continent of Europe (& Greece)! Autochthonous Cretan proto-humans shared their history not with Greece (initially on the far side of the planet and not to be identified as Greek for eons) but with their fellow Cimmerian Terranes Islands islanders and the neighboring genetic cousins they left behind in South and Central America—including the Incas and Mayans!

≈50 Ma Eocene Africa

58-40 Ma Eocene Africa (Williams 2022)
Click to enlarge58-40 Ma Eocene Africa. Main boundary con­ditions changed in DeepMIP  simulations, where top row = PI  and bottom row = early Eocene: (b) topography/bathymetry and (c) vegetation expressed as megabiomes  where 1 = tropical, 2 = warm-temperate, 3 = temperate, 4 = boreal, 5 = savanna, 6 = grassland and 7 = desert.  

"The early Eocene (∼56–48 Myr ago) is characterized by high CO2 estimates (1,200–2,500 ppmv) and elevated global temperatures (∼10°C–16°C higher than modern)… climate models in the Deep-time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP)… results suggest that changes to the land sea mask (relative to modern) in the models may be responsible for the simulated increases in precipitation to the north of Eocene Africa. There is an increase in precipitation over equatorial and West Africa and associated drying over northern Africa as CO2 rises." 

The DeepMIP model (col. b) depicts the waters separating the African continent from the Cimmerian Terranes Islands ≈58–40 Ma. A couple of points from the European continent toward which they've been drifting for eons appears at the extreme top center and right. It appears clear from the relative water depths to the north vs south of the Cimmerian Terranes Islands (being deeper behind its drift than its destination) that subduction beneath the European continent beneath what is now the Mediterranean Sea has already begun.

This suggests that "cousin" ancestor-mammals of the isolated Cimmerian Terranes Islands would be likely to evolve into "cousin" Hominids on the Cimmerian Terranes Islands. Moreover, the Cimmerian Terranes Hominids would likely show a "2nd cousin" relation to the South American Hominids, and be genetically less like distant Hominids from the European continent. This effect would be expected to result in a genetic distinction in earliest peoples of related Pelopónnese, Cretans and Anatolians from Greeks and other peoples of European origin.

This distinction could also be significantly bolstered by the proximity and interactions (developing a distinct pre-culture and pre-civilization) among the mammalian inhabitants indigenous to the Cimmerian Terranes Islands at the time of the break-off from South America vs that of European (including later Greek) mammals.

It would be expected that bands of various mammals might bridge the earliest, smallest, channel opening between them to continue efforts to migrate to seasonally fluctuating feeding areas, and interact with their separated cousin mammalian bands. It's not at all clear how, or how long, these "cousin" mammals may have learned to adapt to the lengthening expanse of water separating them. Particularly the mammals of the Cimmerian Terranes Islands would have been much better able to navigate the smaller expanses of water within their travel-companion islands. This may have encouraged earlier development of seagoing craft than either the continent they left behind or the one they would one day join—perhaps significantly further advanced in maritime technology relative to continental landlubbers.

By the time their homeland islands approached Europe 200 Ma later, this would begin to manifest, ≈30 Ma, in a Homo sapiens head-start toward a superior naval technology and trade superiority (in contrast to landlocked Europe) followed by economic wealth, a more advanced civilization and political power. Because of its larger and superior land resources, the Anatolian island would have been clearly in the lead. And this is what we find in the earliest Mediterranean Anatolian-Peloponnesian-Cretan (see Moix's diagram) maritime confederacy. This is the superior civilization of Anatolia, Pelopónnese and Knossos, Crete and the Mediterranean "Sea Peoples" cited by the Egyptians.

Further, the Stampfli graphics demonstrate  that A•dãm•ãhꞋ (modern Israel) made the transoceanic "Drift" journey along with the Cimmerian Terranes Islands and the African continent (including Egypt). It shouldn't be surprising, then, that the attached Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzūrꞋi•ans  (exonym: Phoenicians) on the north were also accomplished seafarers; or that Egypt had a very ancient civilization and some of the oldest human remains are found in Africa. I'd expect parallel discoveries eventually to be found in South America and, more distantly related, in Europe.

Crete-Turkey-Greece 260Ma (Stampfli)
Click to enlargeCrete-Turkey-Greece 260Ma (graphic: Prof. Gérard Stampfli, Professeur Honoraire, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Lausanne, Switzerland) 

Today's geophysicist and climatologist scientists piece together mathematical models of how our planet got the way it is today since the moon smashed into earth. The journey of (proto-) Crete through this maze seems to put the exclamation on this point. During the entirety of the "recent" (≈50-100 Ma) journey of the Cimmerian Terranes Islands (including Crete, Pelopónnisos, A•dãm•ãhꞋ and Africa-Arabia Anatolia) through these epochal continental crashes indicates that these islands, including Crete & Anatolia) were "next-door" land neighbors, eventually separated by rising water levels, from the earliest times, When the inevitable crash with Eurasia occurred, Pelopónnisos, not far from Crete, smashed straight into proto-Greece, where it is today!

It is these, or similar, conditions, not modern colonization from some relatively only recently (≈50 Ma) accessible mainland, that determined the identity of original autochthonous Homo sapiens on Crete! And this implies that Cretans were pre-human cousins of Pelopónnisons, Semites, Anatolians and Africans—not Eurasian Greeks! The highly advanced civilization and culture of Cretans, claimed by the Classic Greeks (because they could), was cousin of Anatolian civilization and culture. Their shared natural origins was complemented by their physical proximity for eons, sharing their emerging civilization and culture, eons before meeting the first Eurasian (Greek).

Pay it forward (Quote & Cite):

Yirmeyahu Ben-David. The Bib­li­cal Krit­im (2023.09.21). Netzar­im Jews World­wide (Ra'anana, Israel). https://www.netzarim.co.il/Shared/Glossary/Kritim.htm (Retrieved: Month Da, 20##).

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