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[Updated: 2023.10.17]

ÕdãmꞋ: Geology & Genome

Gan EidꞋën: "Out Of A•dãm•ãhꞋ 1.0"

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    Amateur researchers & students, be aware:
  1. Geologists: While geologists have significant factual basis for piecing together this puzzle of how the continents formed and developed over megannia,  they, too, acknowledge that they, too, are still theorizing how the data fits together. I'm not trying to correct the geologists. Rather, this is a non-geologist's attempt to translate "geologese" to the average person. Despite errors I may make, you should have a far better picture of the earth's evolution and be far better prepared to grasp geologists' explanations and advancements.

  2. "Archaeologists": Until very recently (the early 21st century) CE, archaeology was done by arts-degreed, "Indiana Jones" type art-hunters who categorized dig sites according to their art-based, stratigraphy-based assessments of how the on-site buried art (especially pottery) developed chronologically in various cultures and then distributed omnidirectionally to other cultures, then dated according to traditional art history.

    Unfettered, art-archaeologists roamed far and wide dangling skyscraper theories from cobwebs, which they then treated as ironclad. As a result, even scientists have been led to discuss peoples and lands that never existed. Some peoples they described lived in some lands they described; but neither Natufia nor Natufians nor Minoa nor Minoans ever existed. As a result, no one has bothered to build some semblance of connection with Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ, the Kit•imꞋ, Tarshish or Zᵊvūl•ūnꞋ (the maritime tribe of ancient Israel). While it is occasionally acknowledged that Phoenicia(ns) is an exonym, no one has identified who they were. But the early arts-archaeologists, and many today (even including some scientists), assiduously avoid the earliest record—solely because it's Tōr•ãhꞋ and they wish to avoid being perceived as religiously motivated. Anti-pragmatic, unscientific overkill. There are errors, but Tōr•ãhꞋ remains the earliest extant written record of many peoples, places and events. Tōr•ãhꞋ is one of the best, and earliest, written record source of developing pre-history civilizations.

    As a result of art-based methodologies reliance on art-theories not anchored in hard reality (science), a huge inexplicable "gap" opened up in their "history"; a chasm ranging from 2 centuries to a Late Bronze Age Collapse (LBAC) "Greek Dark Age" of >⅓ of a millennium; just a big inexplicable failure for distant past described by scientists to connect to "Classical" Greek art-archaeology dates—even though we know there was no such gap in actual world time. Defying the conspicuous implication that they're wrong somewhere, some still defy science to hold onto their art-educated beliefs (characteristic of religion).

    Then along came a legitimate scientist trying to help, offering the insight of radiocarbon dating. This inevitably led to increased science input into archaeology. The more professional art-archaeologists welcomed and cooperated with this improvement. Today, we even have archaeological scientists with Ph.D.s in a hard science. Suddenly, the 2-century gap and >⅓ of a millennium Greek Dark Ages  of the LBAC,  pinned to the widespread devastation throughout most of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, which ensued from the eruption of Kal•lisꞋtæ, being calculated from 14C datings (then, not as precisely, "wiggle-matched" to a dendrochronological database)— versus the art-assessed, often less-disciplined guesstimate, relying on stratigraphy, began to shrink. To be sure, the resulting imaginary LBAC "gap" has thus far only been greatly reduced. It's not quite "gone"—yet. Based on Ehrlich,   Bronk  and Manning,  however, I'm in a holding-pattern around a 14C dating of cBCE 1544—within the scope of Ehrlich and Bronk, only 20-40 years from Manning and, it still seems likely,  correlating with the Egyptian Par•ōhꞋ Yah-khëpër ka-.. Certainly, the eruption was within a generation or two of his daughter, Khat-shepset, who became the most powerful and mysterious  Queen-Par•ōhꞋ in the history of Egypt—and whom I originally posed many years ago as the "Par•ōhꞋ of the Yᵊtzi•ãhꞋ".

    In the context of dating Egyptian Dynasties, one must remember that, until recently, Egyptian dating of Dynasties and Pharoahs all dangled from one man's—admittedly spotty—account: a BCE 3rd century (more than a millennium after the fact) Greek Hellenist priest of the Hellenist Serapis cult, named Μανέθων, stationed in an Egyptian temple by 2-3 Greek Hellenist rulers over Hellenist Egypt: Ptolemy Sr. – Ptolemy 3rd.

    In my opinion, the perceived remaining "gap" is likely to be found in the art-archaeologists' error; perhaps reliance on Μανέθων, assumed identity of a mummy, sarcophagas or the like.

The distortion(s) in ancient chronology of 2 centuries to half a millennium has, for the most part, been corrected by science.

Rainbow Rule

≈270 Ma 

From Geological Prehistory To Ancient Lore & Recorded History

The Eurasian Geological Suture: The "Cimmerian Terranes" 

Terassic Drift Of Cimmerian Terranes
Click to enlargeTriassic Period Terraneal & Subcontinental drifts. 

Before ≈220 Ma,  pre-humans apparently ranged the supercontinent of Pangea. Consequently, all subsequent continental break-ups were likely already inhabited with pre-humans, the seeds of ÕdãmꞋ and Khau•ãhꞋ—humankind. Thus, human civilizations likely sprang up independently in different parts of the world, more or less simultaneously. Gan EidꞋën seems to have been A•dãm•ãhꞋ as it existed in the heart of Pangea.

Like other animals, pre-humans likely adapted to the various climates, and there was apparently no great Atlantic Ocean barrier until Pangea split, roughly longitudinally down the middle, ≈220Ma, into Gondwana supercontinent (roughly the Americas) on the southeast and LauraAsia (Eurasia) supercontinent on the northwest; with the split widening over megaannia  into the Atlantic Ocean.

At approximately the same time, the eastern coastal crust of Gondwana, the Cimmerian Terranes plate, separated from the Gondwana supercontinent and began drifting ahead of it eastward over megaannia entirely crossing the Neotethys Sea to accrete to the western coast of former Pangea; i.e. the Laurasian (Eurasian) supercontinent.

The geologists are the experts. I'll try to relate the bare essentials explaining very roughly how geologists theorize the Cimmerian Terranes Suture came to be.

During the Triassic Period (according to geologists) ≈220 Ma, the earth's core slow-roiled under a Supercontinent they've called Pangea. First, its eastern crust broke away forming the "Cimmerian Terranes", which included the future northwestern lip of Asia and Istanbul, Turkey. The Cimmerian Terranes plate then began drifting east, pulling A•dãm•ãhꞋ along as it drifted through the Neotethys Sea around the globe toward the western coast of EurAsia (former west coast of Pangea).

However the most radical event occurred when supercontinent Pangea itself broke apart into two continents geologists named Gondwana, in the south, and LaurAsia, in the north.

Gondwana then split longitudinally near its middle (which widened into the Atlantic Ocean); its southwestern continent (future South America) and northwestern continent (North America) remaining relatively stable. Its eastern continent (future Africa-Arabia) drifted eastward, following behind the Cimmerian Terranes—and pulling A•dãm•ãhꞋ (which had been near the center of the supercontinent of Pangea) along beside it, creating the Jordan Valley Rift with Yãm Ki•nërꞋët, Nᵊhar Ya•rᵊd•einꞋ, Yãm ha-MëlꞋakh, the Gulf of Eilat and the Red Sea.

Like a slow freight-train tail-gating a Volkswagen, during the early Jurassic Period, as the Cimmerian Terranes collided into LaurAsia, becoming relatively stationary, the Africa-Arabia plate later smashed in slow-motion into the Cimmerian Terranes (future Istanbul, northern Turkey), scrunching it into LaurAsia (EurAsia); fusing Asia to Europe at modern Istanbul, along the line that is today the Dardanelles and Bosporus Straits, between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. In geologese (borrowed from the medical community, no doubt), this fusion line is called a "suture"—the "Cimmerian Terranes Suture".

"The common lineage of great apes and humans split [≈7+ Ma] several hundred thousand [years] earlier than hitherto assumed, according to an international research team headed by Professor Madelaine Böhme from the Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment at the University of Tübingen and Professor Nikolai Spassov from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The researchers investigated two fossils of Graecopithecus freybergi with state-of-the-art methods and came to the conclusion that they belong to pre-humans. Their findings, published today in two papers in the journal PLOS ONE, further indicate that the split [via Mediterranean-Aegaean maritime island-hopping, north into Europe and south into Africa] of the human lineage occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean and not—as customarily assumed—in Africa."  [hilite added]

9–8.7 Ma Evolution of Genus Homo

≈400 Ka (Thousand Years Ago)  — Out of A•dãm•ãhꞋ 1.1
Science Updates (2017.05.22 & 2016.08.27)
Qesem Cave
Click to enlargeOut of A•dãm•ãhꞋ: QësꞋëm Cave, Rōsh ha-AiꞋyin. Earliest human remains discover­ed to date; fashioned blades & other tools, con­trolled fire, cooked meat (photo: Prof. Barkai, Tel Aviv Univ.)

Before the most recent post-glacial Ma•bulꞋ (cBCE 5500) and the subsequent Biblically-reported lifetime of NōꞋakh (cBCE 2629), the home grazing-territory of nomadic, hunter-gatherer herders was in the process of becoming a homeland. It was called simply "A•dãm•ãhꞋ". A person of A•dãm•ãhꞋ was an "ÕdãmꞋ". And the people of A•dãm•ãhꞋ were "Bᵊn•eiꞋ-ÕdãmꞋ"—not "Natufia(ns)" as invented by a modern, 20th-century, arts-degreed archaeologist! 

Monkey & macaque tools are nearly imperceptibly identical to some early archaeological artifacts attributed to "humans". "Intentionally produced sharp-edged stone flakes and flaked pieces are our primary evidence for the emergence of technology in our lineage. This evidence is used to decipher the earliest hominin behavior, cognition, and subsistence strategies. Here, we report on the largest lithic assemblage associated with a primate foraging behavior undertaken by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). This behavior results in a landscape-wide record of flaked stone material, almost indistinguishable from early hominin flaked pieces and flakes. It is now clear that the production of unintentional conchoidal sharp-edged flakes can result from tool-assisted foraging in nonhominin primates. Comparisons with Plio-Pleistocene lithic assemblages, dating from 3.3 to 1.56 million years ago, show that flakes produced by macaques fall within the technological range of artifacts made by early hominins." 

≈132 Ka (cBCE 130k) — Mediterranean Seafaring Out Of Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ (Crete)

2011 CE — Mediterranean seafaring out of Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ has recently been traced back to cBCE 130,000.  The original peopling of Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ occurred at that same time,  this occurred 100,000 years before migration to southern Europe and Greece!

≈40 Ka (cBCE 38k) — Earliest Modern Humans In Europe
Science Update: 2022.09.14

This means Europeans, including the Greeks and Aegeans, migrated from A•dãm•ãhꞋ—corroborating the account in bᵊReish•itꞋ (10-11! Quare sequitur that the unrivaled remainder of the account is equally reliable, more of a derivation of peoples than a fully-populated genealogical tree (i.e. highlights, most significant branches, only).

The scientific fields then interlock with the Ta•na״khꞋ description: Earliest ÕdãmꞋ emerged in A•dãm•ãhꞋ cBCE 400,000 and (Proto-Semitic memProto-Semitic kheit people) migrated first south and east to the warmer regions of African and Asia cBCE 2-300,000. As, later, ( Proto-Semitic tavProto-Semitic peiProto-Semitic yod people) learned—far later—to adapt to colder climates they migrated north and west, first into southern Europe (Greece and the Aegaean) cBCE 40,000  and then north into the colder regions.

This offers significant confidence that, therefore, Kupros Cyprus was first peopled from the mainland of Phoenicia (modern Lebanon).

Since Strasser, et al. have recently traced Mediterranean seafaring from Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ back to cBCE 130,000,  and the original peopling of Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ occurred at that same time,  this occurred 100,000 years before migration to southern Europe and Greece!

Ergo, even many researchers remain under the misconception that humankind began in Africa, rather than A•dãm•ãhꞋ, all research nevertheless corroborates that immigration into Southern Europe, Greece and the Aegaean Islands was "Out A•dãm•ãhꞋ", rather than across the Mediterranean from Africa by rafts to Ka•phᵊtōrꞋ.

≈400Ka Human Teeth 
Science Update: 2015.06.2
Mankind Out of A•dãm•ãhꞋ, Not Out of Africa!!!
Scientists Haven't Yet Named New Line,
Which Is Father of Both Homo Sapiens And Neandertal

Homo ???-us Rewrites Origin Of Man!!!
Click to enlargePhoto: TAU Prof Israel Hershkowitz

"Researchers found four teeth in the QësꞋëm Cave near Rōsh hã-AyꞋin (not far from Tel Aviv), and they were astonished at test results that conclude the fossils to be some 400 thousand-years-old. The significance of this is that it's possible that the origin of prehistoric man is in Israel, and not in East Africa. And an additional surprise is that prehistoric man was mainly vegetarian and not carnivorous…"

≈100Ka—Discovery Of Neandertal Trait In Ancient Human Skull
Scientific Update: 2014.07.08

"Re-examination of a circa 100,000-year-old archaic early human skull found 35 years ago in Northern China has revealed the surprising presence of an inner-ear formation long thought to occur only in Neandertals.

"The discovery places into question a whole suite of scenarios of later Pleistocene human population dispersals and interconnections based on tracing isolated anatomical or genetic features in fragmentary fossils," said study co-author Erik Trinkaus, PhD, a physical anthropology professor at Washington University in St. Louis.

"It suggests, instead, that the later phases of human evolution were more of a labyrinth of biology and peoples than simple lines on maps would suggest."

"Trinkaus, the Mary Tileston Hemenway Professor in Arts & Sciences, is a leading authority on early human evolution and among the first to offer compelling evidence for interbreeding and gene transfer between Neandertals and modern human ancestors.

"It shows that human populations in the real world don't act in nice simple patterns.

"Eastern Asia and Western Europe are a long way apart, and these migration patterns took thousands of years to play out," he said. "This study shows that you can't rely on one anatomical feature or one piece of DNA as the basis for sweeping assumptions about the migrations of hominid species from one place to another."

The time needed for various regions cited in bᵊ-Reish•itꞋ to achieve their respective populations would seem to corroborate a 2003 DNA study (geneticist Spencer Wells; American Journal of Human Genetics, 2003.09) that dates the DNA mutation that produced the first Homo sapiens to ca. B.C.E. 60,000, originating in what is now Ethiopia-Sudan. More recent science (e.g., Stanford, 2014.01) has converged the origins of the MRCA "Y-Adam" and MRCA "mitochondrial Eve" within the period between B.C.E. 120,000-148,000.

This Ethiopia-Sudan region of Africa not only corroborates the general skin color of the first Homo sapiens as ã•dãmꞋ, the cognate of clay-red soil color, but corroborates as well the genetic mutation of a new microcephalin allele, which mutated ca. B.C.E. 35,000, and, more recently (only about 5800 years ago), the ASPM allele.

It seems clear from this that the original color of the first Homo sapiens was dark, rather than pallid, as most Caucasian-dominated people from more northerly climates (e.g., Europeans) have always presumed.

DNA ÕdãmꞋ Born 140,000 Years After Khaū•ãhꞋ !!!
First DNA Homo sapiens, Frank Bender (sculptor and photographer)
First DNA Homo sapiens (and photo) by forensic sculptor Frank Bender. © 1996-2005

While Khaw•ãhꞋ ("mitochondrial Eve") lived 200,000 years ago, the first DNA Homo sapiens, dates from B.C.E. 60,000, which is still far 54,000 years older than the rabbinic ÕdãmꞋ estimated to have been created from clay like pottery, as an adult, exactly on the 6th day of the week, BCE 3760.06.21! This suggests that bᵊReish•itꞋ, rather than being a record of every generation from ÕdãmꞋ, is an oral proto-history that recorded only milestone paragons, skipping lesser important generations, from ca. B.C.E. 60,000, when man's language suddenly exploded and he began to recount his pre-writing history, up into the time of Avᵊrã•hãmꞋ and his posterity—a period of about 55,000 years.

"Linear Evolution From Ape To Human… Proving To Be Inaccurate"
Scientific Update: 2015.03.10

"What these new fossils are telling us is that the early species of our genus, Homo, were more distinctive than we thought. They differed not only in their faces and jaws, but in the rest of their bodies too," said Carol Ward, a professor of pathology and anatomical sciences in the MU School of Medicine. "The old depiction of linear evolution from ape to human with single steps in between is proving to be inaccurate. We are finding that evolution seemed to be experimenting with different human physical traits in different species before ending up with Homo sapiens." (Prof. of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences Carol Ward, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine)

Shared genes with Neanderthal relatives not unusual 
Scientific Update: 2011.11.02
Neanderthal Wilma (NatlGeog 1996)
Click to enlarge"Neanderthal Wilma"

Mother of Nᵊphil•imꞋ? Rᵊphã•imꞋ? (NatlGeog 1996)

During human evolution our ancestors mated with Neanderthals, but also with other related hominids. In this week's online edition of PNAS, researchers from Uppsala University are publishing findings showing that people in East Asia share genetic material with Denisovans, who got the name from the cave in Siberia where they were first found.

Our study covers a larger part of the world than earlier studies, and it is clear that it is not as simple as we previously thought. Hybridization took place at several points in evolution, and the genetic traces of this can be found in several places in the world. We'll probably be uncovering more events like these, says Mattias Jakobsson, who conducted the study together with Pontus Skoglund.

Previous studies have found two separate hybridization events between so-called archaic humans (different from modern humans in both genetics and morphology) and the ancestors of modern humans after their emergence from Africa: hybridization between Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans outside of Africa and hybridization between Denisovans and the ancestors of indigenous Oceanians. The genetic difference between Neandertals and Denisovans is roughly as great as the maximal level of variation among us modern humans.

Ancient Humans Were Mixing It Up:
Scientific Update: 2011.09.07
Anatomically Modern Humans Interbred With More Archaic Hominin Forms While In Africa  
San (bush) !Kun Khoi-San Kalahari, S Africa
Click to enlargeSan: Genetic Ancestors of All Homo Sapiens!Kun Khoi-San; Kalahari, S Africa

It is now widely accepted that the species Homo sapiens originated in Africa and eventually spread throughout the world. But did those early humans interbreed with more ancestral forms of the genus Homo, for example Homo erectus, the "upright walking man," Homo habilis, — the "tool-using man" or Homo neanderthalensis, the first artists of cave-painting fame?

Direct studies of ancient DNA from Neanderthal bones suggest interbreeding did occur after anatomically modern humans had migrated from their evolutionary cradle in Africa to the cooler climates of Eurasia, but what had happened in Africa remained a mystery — until now.

In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, or PNAS, a team led by Michael Hammer, an associate professor and research scientist with the UA's Arizona Research Labs, provides evidence that anatomically modern humans were not so unique that they remained separate.

"We found evidence for hybridization between modern humans and archaic forms in Africa. It looks like our lineage has always exchanged genes with their more morphologically diverged neighbors," said Hammer, who also holds appointments in the UA's department of ecology and evolutionary biology, the school of anthropology, the BIO5 Institute and the Arizona Cancer Center.

Hammer added that recent advances in molecular biology have made it possible to extract DNA from fossils tens of thousands of years old and compare it to that of modern counterparts…

According to Hammer, the first signs of anatomically modern features appeared about 200,000 years ago…

"We discovered three different genetic regions fit the criteria for being archaic DNA still present in the genomes of sub-Saharan Africans. Interestingly, this signature was strongest in populations from central Africa…"

"We are talking about something that happened between 20,000 and 60,000 years ago — not that long ago in the scheme of things," Hammer said. "If interbreeding occurs, it's going to bring in a whole chromosome, and over time, recombination events will chop the chromosome down to smaller pieces. And those pieces will now be found as short, unusual fragments. By looking at how long they are we can get an estimate of how far back the interbreeding event happened."

Hammer said that even though the archaic DNA sequences account for only two or three percent of what is found in modern humans, that doesn't mean the interbreeding wasn't more extensive.

"It could be that this represents what's left of a more extensive archaic genetic content today. Many of the sequences we looked for would be expected to be lost over time. Unless they provide a distinct evolutionary advantage, there is nothing keeping them in the population and they drift out…

"We think there were probably thousands of interbreeding events," Hammer said. "It happened relatively extensively and regularly."

"Anatomically modern humans were not so unique that they remained separate," he added. "They have always exchanged genes with their more morphologically diverged neighbors. This is quite common in nature, and it turns out we're not so unusual after all."

Bomb Genetic Bombshell — Africans Are Human, Europeans Are Neandertal! Wha!?!
Genetic Research Confirms That Non-Africans Are Part Neanderthal

Scientific Update: 2011.07.18
Now Ain't That A Revoltin' Development For Racists!?!

Hold on to your hats, the genetic research ride is getting bumpy. And get a good grip on your personal identity because our genetic origins aren't turning out like anyone expected. Most racists being white (European origin), it turns out, are Neanderthals. Gulp! We white folks, not the black folks, are the knuckle-draggers! The racists will choke on this one. Oy!

"Some of the human

X chromosome originates from Neanderthals and is found exclusively in people outside Africa, according to an international team of researchers led by Damian Labuda of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Montreal and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center. The research was published in the July issue of Molecular Biology and Evolution.

"This confirms recent findings suggesting that the two populations interbred," says Dr. Labuda. His team places the timing of such intimate contacts and/or family ties early on, probably at the crossroads of the Middle East.

"Neanderthals, whose ancestors left Africa about 400,000 to 800,000 years ago, evolved in what is now mainly France, Spain, Germany and Russia, and are thought to have lived until about 30,000 years ago. Meanwhile, early modern humans left Africa about 80,000 to 50,000 years ago. The question on everyone's mind has always been whether the physically stronger Neanderthals, who possessed the gene for language and may have played the flute, were a separate species or could have interbred with modern humans. The answer is yes, the two lived in close association.

"In addition, because our methods were totally independent of Neanderthal material, we can also conclude that previous results were not influenced by contaminating artifacts," adds Dr. Labuda.

"Dr. Labuda and his team almost a decade ago had identified a piece of DNA (called a haplotype) in the human X chromosome that seemed different and whose origins they questioned. When the Neanderthal genome was sequenced in 2010, they quickly compared 6000 chromosomes from all parts of the world to the Neanderthal haplotype. The Neanderthal sequence was present in peoples across all continents, except for sub-Saharan Africa, and including Australia.

"There is little doubt that this haplotype is present because of mating with our ancestors and Neanderthals. This is a very nice result, and further analysis may help determine more details," says Dr. Nick Patterson, of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, a major researcher in human ancestry who was not involved in this study. [Suddenly, Europeans—Google Dr. Patterson's photo—claim Africans as "our ancestors" while describing European ancestors as the Neanderthals. Dr. Patterson apparently has it backward and should have said, "There is little doubt that this haplotype is present because of mating with our Neanderthal ancestors and Africans." It would appear that only an African can legitimately say that "There is little doubt that this haplotype is present because of mating with our ancestors and Neanderthals." What can ya do? Non-logician scientists have such trouble adapting to science.]

"Dr. Labuda and his colleagues were the first to identify a genetic variation in non-Africans that was likely to have come from an archaic population. This was done entirely without the Neanderthal genome sequence, but in light of the Neanderthal sequence, it is now clear that they were absolutely right!" adds Dr. David Reich, a Harvard Medical School geneticist, one of the principal researchers in the Neanderthal genome project."

≈30Ka Fossil Finger Bone Yields Genome Of A Previously Unknown Human Relative
Scientific Update: 2010.12.23

"SANTA CRUZ, CA--A 30,000-year-old finger bone found in a cave in southern Siberia came from a young girl who was neither an early modern human nor a Neanderthal, but belonged to a previously unknown group of human relatives who may have lived throughout much of Asia during the late Pleistocene epoch. Although the fossil evidence consists of just a bone fragment and one tooth, DNA extracted from the bone has yielded a draft genome sequence, enabling scientists to reach some startling conclusions about this extinct branch of the human family tree, called "Denisovans" after the cave where the fossils were found.

The findings are reported in the December 23 issue of Nature by an international team of scientists… of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

By comparing the Denisovan genome sequence with the genomes of Neanderthals and modern humans, the researchers determined that the Denisovans were a sister group to the Neanderthals, descended from the same ancestral population that had separated earlier from the ancestors of present-day humans. The study also found surprising evidence of Denisovan gene sequences in modern-day Melanesians, suggesting that there was interbreeding between Denisovans and the ancestors of Melanesians, just as Neanderthals appear to have interbred with the ancestors of all modern-day non-Africans [i.e., Europeans].

"The story now gets a bit more complicated," said [Richard] Green, an assistant professor of biomolecular engineering in the Baskin School of Engineering at UC Santa Cruz. "Instead of the clean story we used to have of modern humans migrating out of Africa and replacing Neanderthals, we now see these very intertwined story lines with more players and more interactions than we knew of before."

The Denisovans appear to have been quite different both genetically and morphologically from Neanderthals and modern humans. The tooth found in the same cave as the finger bone shows a morphology that is distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans and resembles much older human ancestors, such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus."

≈100Ka Modern humans emerged far earlier than previously thought
Scientific Update: 2010.10.27

"Many long-held beliefs suggesting why the Neanderthals went extinct have been debunked in recent years. Research has already shown that Neanderthals were as good at hunting as Homo sapiens and had no clear disadvantage in their ability to communicate. Now, these latest findings add to the growing evidence that Neanderthals were no less intelligent than our ancestors… Metin Eren, an MA Experimental Archaeology student at the University of Exeter and lead author on the paper comments: "Our research disputes a major pillar holding up the long-held assumption that Homo sapiens were more advanced than Neanderthals." (EurekAlert).

It is also fascinating that the emergence of the recent ASMP mutation coincides with the distinction between, and convergence of, Neandertal man with Cro-Magnon (manyon) man and the disappearance (or absorption, the jury is still out) of the former. Both shared language, eliminating language as the distinction affected by these genes.

"While Cro-Magnon man had been assumed extinct, modern DNA analyis has shown that Cro-Magnons are a significant subset of today's human population, sharing the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Haplogroup N" (NYT).

In southern China, according to Washington University in St. Louis researchers, "The discovery of early modern human fossil remains in the Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in south China that are at least 100,000 years old provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of modern humans in eastern Asia, at least 60,000 years older than the previously known modern humans in the region.

"These fossils are helping to redefine our perceptions of modern human emergence in eastern Eurasia, and across the Old World more generally," says Eric Trinkaus, PhD, the Mary Tileston Hemenway Professor in Arts & Sciences and professor of physical anthropology.

"The Zhirendong fossils have a mixture of modern and archaic features that contrasts with earlier modern humans in east Africa and southwest Asia, indicating some degree of human population continuity in Asia with the emergence of modern humans.

"The Zhirendong humans indicate that the spread of modern human biology long preceded the cultural and technological innovations of the Upper Paleolithic and that early modern humans co-existed for many tens of millennia with late archaic humans further north and west across Eurasia."

≈BCE 25 Ka (cBCE 23k)—Hunter-Gatherers—Pre-Writing Primitive Drawing

map Adamah Fertile Crescent agricultural worldhistory org (Simeon Netchev)
Click to enlarge"Out Of A•dãm•ãhꞋ" 1.1 — Birth of agricultural civilizations; hunter-gatherers follow grains north, then around Fertile Crescent. agricultural worldhistory org (map: Simeon Netchev)

Current thinking suggests that, ≈BCE 6 million, pre-humans congregated in Europe for hunting and shelter efficiencies, making communication and language essential. For most of the 6 million years since, however, the need for written communication seems to have been limited to simple arrangements of stones pointing to hunting grounds, drawings on cave walls, simple depictions on stone—and, learned by scientists of the time (astronomer-astrologists perceived as priests of god, the clergy) from observation, to predict planting seasons, large permanent boulder markers indicating sunrise for each lunar month. (Supplying this then-occult information was quickly monopolized by the alpha-male rulers of the day, establishing power for the contemporary scientist-priest clergy. Like the ruling alpha-male, these deputy-rulers required a physical deputy-throne operations building—for the gods, of course. It then became the obligation of these scientist-clergy of their day, on pain of death if they were exposed as fakes who didn't really know god(s) and were misleading the alpha-ruler, to explain all inexplicables—whether they knew the answers or had to invent them!)

≈BCE 3,000 — New Evidence Debunks 'Stupid' Neanderthal Myth
Scientific Update: 2008.08.26

"The Chicago team… note that the [newer] ASPM allele emerged at about the same time as… the emergence of the civilizations of the Middle East some 5,000 years ago" (NYT); i.e. B.C.E. 3,000.

"Research by UK and American scientists has struck another blow to the theory that Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) became extinct because they were less intelligent than our ancestors (Homo sapiens)… Published today ([2008.08.26]) in the Journal of Human Evolution, their discovery debunks a textbook belief held by archaeologists for more than 60 years… The team from the University of Exeter, Southern Methodist University, Texas State University, and the Think Computer Corporation… The Neanderthals, believed to be a different species from Homo sapiens, evolved in Ice Age Europe, while the latter evolved in Africa before spreading out to the rest of the world around 50-40,000 years ago. Neanderthals are thought to have died out around 28,000 years ago, suggesting at least 10,000 years of overlap and possible interaction between the two species in Europe".

In other words, it increasingly appears that the two mingled, unmaintainable traits went extinct, the distinctions blurred and they merged to become today's modern human. DNA research seems to corroborate this conclusion. The recent (B.C.E. 12,100—1500 C.E.) ASPM allele also corresponds precisely (as close as anyone can tell) to ca. B.C.E. 4131—when the Bible and other sources seem to begin recorded history. Combining various archeological and historical sources points to the •dãm of bә-Reish•it living ca. B.C.E. 4131 (Chronology). Based on a compilation of historical documentation, this is certainly a far more precise—within a couple of centuries at the outside—and reliable dating. To be within 3½ centuries of the "favor[ed] mid-way date" when the range is 13,600 years is so precise it's almost scary. Could bә-Reish•it 1.1—6.8 be the history of the distinctions, interactions and final convergence of Neandertal and Cro-Magnon man less than 6,000 years ago?

While this new mutation spread quickly through the most of the homo sapien population, yet today "Some 70 percent or more of people in most European and East Asian populations [still] carry [the older] allele of the gene, as do 100 percent of those in three South American Indian populations" (NYT). "It is already present in about a quarter of people alive today, and is more common in Europe and the Middle East than the rest of the world." (Mason Inman, "Human brains enjoy ongoing evolution" news service, 2005.09.09). "The [new] allele has attained a frequency of about 50 percent in populations of the Middle East and Europe, is less common in East Asia, and found at low frequency in some sub-Saharan Africa peoples." (NYT)

This leads to the fascinating possibility that the pre-•dãm (i.e., pre-ca. B.C.E. 4131) ASMP allele, ASMPN, is that of Neandertal man (anatomically modern human, most adept at predatory cunning) while the post-•dãm ASMP allele, ASMPC, is that of Cro-Magnon (anatomically modern human, most adept at higher, abstract, intelligence)—presumed (perhaps another example of wishful assumptions overriding science to be taken as axiomatic) to be the humans of today.

Apparently shattering our lofty self-illusions, however, scientists find that each person today has one of three possible pair combinations of this gene:

This leads to the possibility of new insight into vël versus Qayin and Ei•sãu versus Ya•a•qov; that every person in today's "modern human" population is either Neandertal (more adept at predatory cunning?), Cro-Magnon (more adept at abstract intelligence) or a hybrid of the two. Did Qayin receive two ASPMC alleles while his brother received one of the other combinations? Was there a genetically-based, instinctual pre-inclination for one to be a rancher and the other a farmer? Was the incident the final straw in a range war? To what extent is the individual's brain capable and, therefore, responsible for controlling, changing or even mutating the expression of his or her genes? While the twins, Ei•sãu and Ya•a•qov, had identical genes, might their intrinsic enmity be based on each having expressed or mutated the gene differently?

These possibilities, in turn, could lend a whole new twist to bә-Reish•it 6.1-4… even Dәvãr•im 7.3, et al and, particularly, Yәsha•yãhu 6.9-10 and Yi•rәmәyãhu 5.21, paralleled in The Nәtzãr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•tit•yãhu (NHM) 11.(approx v.14), 13.9, 19, 43.

cBCE 6800-5600—Glacial Melt: The Ma•bulꞋ
Mediterranean Rises, Bursts  Back Through Cimmerian Terranes Suture  Into Black Sea
≈BCE 5500 "Out of A•dãm•ãhꞋ—2.0 (Again)"

Cimmerian Terranes, modern location
Click to enlarge≈BCE 5500, a glacial melt precipitated a significant rise in ocean levels, raising the Mediterranean Sea to the point it burst through the Terassic Era Cimmerian Terranes Suture;  flooding the Black Sea, inundating ancient coastal regions now underwater.

Two geologists at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory have found evidence  that the most recent glacial melt, cBCE 5600, elevated the water levels of the world's oceans to the point that the Mediterranean overflowed the Dardanelles and Bosporus Straits, swamping the Black Sea (which had previously been at a much lower level), permanently engulfing large coastal areas of the Black Sea.

MiddleEast BCE05500&2629 Out of Adamah BeneiNoakh
Click to enlargeMiddle-East BCE 5500–2629: Out of A•dãm•ãhꞋ: Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NōꞋakh (first recorded cBCE 2629, probably by NōꞋakh): "Out Of A•dãm•ãhꞋ" — Again! (2.0)

Because of supernatural-literalists, the account of the Ma•bulꞋ by NōꞋakh has been dismissed by many as myth. Empathizing into the shoes of NōꞋakh, however, reveals that, animist theophanies of supernatural intercessions aside, NōꞋakh, living cBCE 2629 (≈3 millennia after the Ma•bulꞋ), was likely merely the first (or earliest remembered) ã•dãmꞋ known to have written down—historically transcribed and recorded—the received lore of the Ma•bulꞋ. That's like BCE 1000 to us! When lore was all they had, though, it appears that countless responsible "historians" practiced reciting lore as accurately as possible, confirming and correcting each other's memories—over eons.

More likely, NōꞋakh and his sons may have lived at the time of the Ma•bulꞋ and only a few major branches of the genealogical tree were retained by the time written language had developed to the point that the received lore was first recorded. This likely pushes back the date of ÕdãmꞋ and Khau•ãhꞋ in my enormously.

One might think that the geologists' description of the rising Mediterranean simply overflowed and burst through an isthmus, which had connected Europe and Asia at Istanbul, Turkey; allowing it to swamp the Black Sea. What made this isthmus between the Mediterranean and Black Seas particularly vulnerable to such an apocalyptic event? Panama remained unbreached for millions of years until man built a canal. Double-checking led to the realization that there had been never been an isthmus there. It was a geological "suture"—explaining the vulnerability to the rising Mediterranean Sea levels but, as a result, miring the discussion into explaining the presence of the "Cimmerian Terranes Suture".

≈BCE 3400 — Development Of True Writing
Egyptian Hieroglyphics & Sumerian Cuneiform: Beginnings of Recorded History 
To appreciate the dispersement amidst developing languages, significant distinguishing names are presented in their earliest known format. Hovering the cursor over the hilited name displays an explanatory balloon, often accompanied by a link to an explanatory note.

The earliest evidence for written language that scientists have discovered, assessed as true (grammatical) language and dated appears to be the comparatively very recent development (relative to past megaannia of humanoids) of cave drawings into a shorthand we know as Egyptian hieroglyphics—cBCE 3300.

The advent of writing enabled the first recording of history, which began with a review of the underlying campfire-lore about ancestors. Pre-writing era "history" is the best notion that cBCE 3th millennia civilizations perceived about the origins of mankind and heroes of the past. Likely, pre-BCE 4th millennia descriptions recorded only the most memorable heroes of the past, with unknown lapses scattered throughout. Thus, in the Sheim-ite record incorporated in Ta•na״khꞋ, יְהוָׂה caused Proto-Semitic memProto-Semitic daletProto-Semitic aleph to emerge from Proto-Semitic heiProto-Semitic memProto-Semitic daletProto-Semitic aleph and, as recent genetics has also demonstrated, the simultaneous emergence of his woman, חַוָּ֑ה!

(Notice that when the seated-human figure in the Proto-Sinaitic Hebrew is separate from the land, he is an ã•dãmꞋ. But when an ã•dãmꞋ dies, he returns to a•dãm•ãhꞋ. Also, the seated-human figure is an Essence of (ha-Sheim, "the Name"; i.e. יְהוָׂה). When that Essence, , emerges from a•dãm•ãhꞋ, the result is ã•dãmꞋ. At death, the reemerges with a•dãm•ãhꞋ. This reasoning dates back to the most primitive origins of language.)

From Prehistory Ancient Lore To Recorded History

Tigris & Euphrates rivers
Click to enlargeMesopotamia (in yellow, between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, top center) in the context of the modern Middle East. Perhaps geologists will soon be able to place where the other two rivers were—relative to Gan EidꞋën (A•dãm•ãhꞋ) back in Pangea (see illustration at top of page).

“Before language and writing, ancient lore around campfires was all the history there was; the only explanation of how everything had come to be as it was when writing, and written (recorded) history, began — ca. B.C.E. 3200. Crystallization of recorded history emerged over the next millennium, including the family tree of Av•rã•hãmꞋ ca. B.C.E. 2187.

“Oral lore transitioned to recorded history long after the "Big Nᵊti•yãhꞋ"; even long after the emergence of several variants of humans migrating out of A•dãm•ãhꞋ and subsequently mutating to adapt to different regions. But only after the development of written language in Mesopotamia cBCE 3200—enabling, for the first time, the recording of the body of oral law, to which unfolding history was appended.”

cBCE 2629—Transcription of Oral Lore From ≈3 Millennia Earlier: Proto-Sinaitic kheitProto-Sinaitic nun & The Ma•bulꞋ

There is an ≈2900 year gap between the geological Ma•bulꞋ event and the genealogical record of NōꞋakh and his posterity. It seems clear that the pre- cBCE 2629 oral lore was spotty, recalling only a few heroic figures with many gaps. It is impossible to accurately place these individuals on essentially a scissor-extended chronology that has been contracted.

Migration Of Bᵊn•eiꞋ-NōꞋakh "Out of Proto-Semitic heiProto-Semitic memProto-Semitic daletProto-Semitic aleph"

Combining a growing corpus of modern archaeological-scientists' DNA genetics findings with ancient documents (including Ta•na״khꞋ ) and excavations of ancient artifacts (pottery, etc.), the origins of mankind and civilizations begin to emerge:

≈BCE 2629 NōꞋakh to (SheimEivꞋër עֵבֶר‎ to) cBCE 1879 Av•rã•hãmꞋ

Click to enlargeTable of Nations from Ta•na״khꞋ (bᵊReish•itꞋ 10–36). Circa BCE 2629, emergence of written language: NōꞋakh first codifies lore of then-ancient Flood (cBCE 5500) 

≈BCE 2500—A•dãm•ãhꞋ Becomes Kᵊna•anꞋ

Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast (Rainey 2001)
Click to enlargeBCE 5th Century, Ἡρόδοτος Description of Eastern Mediterranean coastlands from Syria in the North to Egypt; including the 4 Pulossian (Philistine/​Palestina;) colonies

Hectomillennia  after the formation of the Cimmerian Terranes Suture, the most recent glacial melt and resulting Ma•bulꞋ, brings us to the time of NōꞋakh and his son, Proto-Semitic memProto-Semitic shin, whose clan principally inhabited A•dãm•ãhꞋ.

The general picture related in Ta•na״khꞋ is that, while the clan of Sheim's nephew, Kᵊna•anꞋ, remained in A•dãm•ãhꞋ, most of Sheim's clan emigrated throughout the Fertile Cresent, east, and then south (surrounding and absorbing Arabia) down to the northern tip of the Arabian-Persian Gulf (today's southern Iraq).

By contrast, most of the clans of Proto-Semitic memProto-Semitic kheit migrated west into Africa while most of the clans of Proto-Semitic tavProto-Semitic peiProto-Semitic yod emigrated north into Europe (including Greece and the Aegaean). This left Kᵊna•anꞋ as the predominant clan in A•dãm•ãhꞋ. Consequently, A•dãm•ãhꞋ gradually morphed into being called Kᵊna•anꞋ (corrupted to "Canaan") 

The advent of recording unfolding history required that what was known of ancient lore be molded into the then-existing present to fill in the blanks of how things had come to be as they were. Thus, the highlight names known to the Biblical tribal-historians — Middle East Gan EiꞋdën — ancestors and antiquity were strung together to the best of their knowledge.

cBCE 1130 Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh & Earliest Hebrew

The earliest Hebrew found so far dates from the time of Dã•widꞋ ha-MëlꞋëkh (ibid.)—late BCE 12th (not 10th) century (ibid.). Akkadian cuneiform, precursor to Sheim-ite (Shemite, Semitic) Hebrew and Aramaic, are thought to roughly parallel Egyptian hieroglyphics.

The rabbinic collapsing of the time from the Big NãtꞋãh to Av•rã•hãmꞋ into three millennia, to conclude the earth is less than 6,000 years old and dinosaurs never existed, has been an epic error of ignorance-by-choice.


Recent (2019) research by of the Pan-African Evolution Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History “argues that our evolutionary past must be understood as the outcome of dynamic changes in connectivity, or gene flow, between early humans scattered across Africa. Viewing past human populations as a succession of discrete branches on an evolutionary tree may be misleading, they said, because it reduces the human story to a series of "splitting times" which may be illusory.”

Thus, humans had, before the era of written language and recorded history, variegated from the single form of Pangeal A•dãm•ãhꞋ (Gan EidꞋën) Bᵊn•eiꞋ-ÕdãmꞋ to:

Pay it forward (Quote & Cite):

Yirmeyahu Ben-David. Adam Geo­lo­gy & Ge­nome (2023.10.17). Netzar­im Jews World­wide (Ra'anana, Israel). Genetics.htm (Retrieved: Month Da, 20##).

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