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[Updated: 2023.06.08]


Evolution Of The Akkadian NëꞋshan Language—Which Defined The Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan-Kit•imꞋ

NëꞋsha, Kã•rūmꞋ Kayseri, Eur-Asia 

ᴷH•ãrꞋrian aka Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan aka Kitim
Click to enlargecBCE 3000–1600 ᴷH•ãrꞋrian aka Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan aka Kit•imꞋ

Note: To the time of this publication—of my research, modern archaeologists remain baffled by the puzzles of ancient Mediterranean history; unable to distinguish various "Sea Peoples" or a mysterious ancient superpower exhibiting extraordinary scientific technological achievements and advanced culture. Some claimed this people (among other ancient civilizations) were extraterrestrial aliens. In 1900 CE, a modern British "Indiana Jones" explorer (arts-degreed archaeologist, Arthur Evans) fabricated a name for this unidentified people based on one of their myths , a king named Minos—and presto! A mythical people named "Minoans" became misassociated with hard physical archaeological evidence of the extraordinary ancient Mediterranean maritime superpower civilization at the critical moment and juncture of the early Asian-European fusion into EurAsia (Anatolia: modern Turkey) of the northern Mediterranean coastlands. (Evans was not alone. In the 1920s CE, another British "Indiana Jane" explorer (arts-degreed archaeologist), Dorothy Garrod, dreamed-up the "Nafufians", another nonexistent (unidentified) "people", similarly imagineered, to go along with her archaeological excavations.)

NëꞋshan Preserved In Parallel Cuneiform & Hieroglyphs
Eur-Asian (Hellenizing Semitic) Linear-A & Linear-B

"The language is preserved in two closely related but distinct forms, one using [Akkadian (Proto-Semitic)] cuneiform script and the other using [Proto-Semitic Egyptian-Like] hieroglyphic writing."

The most likely explanation for this paralleling of written "NëꞋshan" is a parallel need for this Mediterranean maritime superpower merchant-trading and naval fleet is to adapt and adopt to the languages of the Mediterranean coastal people—primarily Proto-Semitic along the southeastern basin vs ancient Hellenist (Greek) Indo-European in the northwestern Mediterranean Basin. The need for a business accounting language for such a trade-centric economy is self-evident. Over time, a hybrid pidgin trade language evolved, as evidenced in Linear-A, followed by Linear-B.

Shifting Predominance Of Anatolian Hattis, Harrians, Luwians & Hittites—Biblical Kit•imꞋ

Just as the predominant citydom of the Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a-TzurꞋa people (exonym: Phoenicians) shifted over time from Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a to TzurꞋa, becoming known collectively as TzurꞋa rather than Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a, the similar pattern of shifting fortunes producing shifts in predominant citydoms is unremarkable.

Ancient villages emerged near water sources, especially rivers, along caravan routes and seaports. Many remained commercial trade centers when satellite, often farm, villages sprouted around nearby resources. As predominance followed shifting fortunes among neighboring kã•rūmꞋ-capitals, Anatolia reflected six cities that grew to kã•rūmꞋ-capitals from cBCE 3000–​cBCE 1400. These were shifting citydoms pivotal to ancient Eur-Asia (Anatolia) and their maritime merchant fleets and navies, each of which has been variously described as a chronological sequence of separate, as if distinct and unrelated, "kingdom".

Rainbow Rule

c50–12 ka, Upper Palaeolithic

"Much visible evidence of the earliest cultures of Anatolia may have been lost owing to the large rise in sea levels that followed the end of the last Ice Age (about 10,000 years ago) and to deposition of deep alluvium in many coastal and inland valleys. Nevertheless, there are widespread—though little studied—signs of human occupation in cave sites from at least the Upper Paleolithic Period, and earlier Lower Paleolithic remains are evident in Yarımburgaz Cave near Istanbul. Rock engravings of animals on the walls of caves near Antalya, on the Mediterranean coast, suggest a relationship with the Upper Paleolithic art of western Europe. Associated with these are rock shelters, the stratified occupational debris of which has the potential finally to clarify the transitional phases between cave-dwelling society and the Neolithic economy of the first agricultural communities." 

cBCE 9000–7300, Neolithic Period

"In the Middle East the first indications of the beginning of the Neolithic transition from food gathering to food producing can be dated to approximately  [BCE 9000]; the true Neolithic began about [BCE 7300], by which time farming and stock breeding were well established, and lasted until about [BCE 6250]. The Neolithic was succeeded by the Chalcolithic Period, during which metal weapons and tools gradually took their place beside their stone prototypes, and painted pottery came generally into use. The Chalcolithic ended in the middle centuries of the [BCE4th millennium], when the invention of writing foreshadowed the rise of the great dynastic civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, and was followed by periods of more advanced metalworking known as the Early and Middle Bronze Ages." 

"The gap in the archaeological record between the widely separated Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods was filled by the discovery (1961–65) at Çatalhüyük of a Neolithic settlement that was occupied from the mid-8th to the mid-7th millennium. The discoveries at Çatalhüyük not only amplified but also transformed the whole conception of human behaviour in Neolithic times. In the town, houses were built of sun-dried brick, closely contiguous like the cells of a honeycomb, but each had several rectangular rooms similarly planned and was accessible only by a wooden ladder from its flat roof. The contiguous roofs provided space for the communal life of the inhabitants…The presence of Mediterranean shells and of metal ores and pigments not locally available suggests extensive trade. Undecorated pottery was in use throughout the life of the settlement, its shapes often imitating those of wooden vessels, examples of which were found intact… the peoples of the Anatolian plateau generally played a significant part in the spread of early farming…

"The transition from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic phase of cultural evolution is thought to have taken place gradually in the late [BCE 7th millennium]. At most sites where its progress can be traced, no perceptible break occurs in the continuity of occupation, and there is little reason to assume any major ethnographic upheaval. Archaeologically, the most conspicuous innovation is the decoration of pottery with coloured paint, a widespread development in western Anatolia. Late periods at Hacılar were characterized by the production of some of the most competently and attractively decorated pottery in prehistoric Anatolia, and in the subsequent middle phase of the Chalcolithic Period polychrome wares were produced in south-central Anatolia and Cilicia. Village architecture of this period is undistinguished…

"Metallurgy was beginning to be understood, and copper was used for pins and simple implements. But there are occasional glimpses of a greater sophistication…" 

cBCE 7500–6500, Neolithic Period

To date, no settlement has yet been revealed "earlier than about [BCE 8000]. The earliest settlements were characterized not only by the domestication of barley and sometimes wheat but also by the absence of pottery and of domestic animals other than the dog… a people living in mud-brick houses with plastered walls and floors, painted and burnished like those in contemporary [Yᵊrikh•ōꞋ]." 

cBCE 6500 (Chalcolithic Period) – Early Bronze Age (EBA)
Brief History of Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha, Anatolia (Eur-Asia, Modern Western-Turkey)

"The first 'settling in' around [Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha ] took place in [BCE 6th millennium] during the Chalcolithic period, when small widely scattered hamlets appeared most particularly on mountain slopes and rocky outcroppings.

cBCE 3300: Bronze Age

For purposes of tracing the origin and development of the NëꞋshan language spoken by the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan (Hittite) Empire, our interest is in the initial (EBA) development of the interior heartland of Western Anatolia—Kᴴa•itᵊ•tūꞋsha

Evolving Dialects of NëꞋsha Citydom Residents EBA1–3a  cBCE 3300–2300

cBCE 3300–2300 Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans (aka misnomers "Hattis", "Hatti", "Hattians"); Their main centre was the city of Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsh ("Hattush"). Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European. Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsh neighbored NëꞋsha, arguably spoke, and characteristically fits, the NëꞋshan language (misnomer: "Hattic").

NëꞋshan Citydom 
NëꞋshan Language (Precursor Of Linear A & Linear B)

"Levant" is simply a modern French appellation, meaning "east"! The earliest name for the eastern Mediterranean land that became Yi•sᵊr•ã•eilꞋ is the Semitic Hebrew-Aramaic "-ÃrꞋëtz". The aboriginal, autochthonal people of -ÃrꞋëtz were the Semites.

(In parallel, this was also the critical time when -ÃrꞋëtz was fusing Eurasia and Africa; i.e. Egypt) of the southern Mediterranean coastlands.

It should be noted that the superior culture and technology of Anatolia (western Turkey) created the world's leading technology in marine architecture, building the most seaworthy ships on the planet. Kit•imꞋ ships sailed the entirety of the Mediterranean and through what is today the Strait of Gibralter out into the Atlantic Ocean north to Portugal and Spain.

The timber best suited for marine shipbuilding, however, was cedar; and most of the cedar was a resource of the Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•ans  (later predominated by their fellow-citydom, the Tzūrians, i.e. modern Lebanon). Furthermore, the Kit•imꞋ were the most advanced civilization, including the mining and maritime exporting of God Stone. Their exports and international shipping and trade made them the wealthiest and first maritime superpoweer of the ancient world. Yet, the Tzūrians held a monopoly on their most coveted need—the Tzūrian Phoenix-bird color of royal burgundy dye, the only color befitting their eminence.

These are the elements that shaped the early Mediterranean world, with their trading ports (cultural and religious influence) dotting all of its coastlands.

NëꞋsha was the first citydom to grow into a provincedom, predominating what is today the heartland of western Turkey. Most importantly, the NëꞋshan language would evolve and predominate through several adjoining provinces that would come to predominate NëꞋsha City as their capital—adopting the NëꞋshan language. This series of provincedoms evolved into a kingdom empire what we know in English as the Hittites. Biblical Israel knew them by their Semitic name—the Kit•imꞋ (bᵊReish•itꞋ 10.4).

Under constructionqqxxqxxq

Among their many port-centric trading colonies across the Mediterranean Sea and its coastlands, the Kit•imꞋ established a semi-autonomous colony on the island of Kᵊrē•të, home of the xKritim .

Nëshi (Linear A cuneiform) (NëꞋsha) central Anatolian city  & their language: BCE 3rd millennium–LBACNeshan,Nesili,Neshili autochthonous capital city of the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans & particularly their NëꞋshan language.

Several successive (Anatolian ) Ka•tᵊtūꞋshan "empires" appear to be more of a shift in dominance among neighboring Anatolian citydoms tied together by their need to communicate via an evolving NëꞋshan language; differing more in dialect than genetic differences.

[which moved to Nesha?
Hittites (Ḫa-at-tu-ša / 𒄩𒀜𒌅𒊭) Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan [["in later periods the Hittites themselves used the form Ḥatti for both the country and its capital when they wrote Akkadian, but Ḥattuša, also in both usages, when writing Hittite, while an adjective, Ḥattili, was derived from the short form. … despite the title King of [cuneiform could not be found; guessed from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuneiform_(Unicode_block)] 𒋢 Kuš 𒊹 šar, Neša seems to have been the royal residence"] https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/hittites] were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing first a kingdom in Kussara [city] [location uncertain, surmised to be SSE of Nesha city [modern Kültepe], which is SE of Khattusha [modern Boğazköy, city]; wiki/Hittites;
c. 3000–2500 BC, to Byzantine times, important Hattian, Hittite and Hurrian city – wiki/Kültepe;
Hattians, Hattian, was a non-Indo-European agglutinative… their land, language and capital city (Hatti, Hattili, Hattush) are debated among scholars. Later conquerors (Hittites) did not change the name of the city (Hattush). – wiki/Hattians; ]

The autochthonous Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans, their successor ᴷH•ãrꞋrians and their successor Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans were, successively, NëꞋshans geographically (and linguistically) located between Hellenic (Greek) Aegean (Cycladic) islands to their west, Semitic peoples to their east  and south, and (clockwise further south around to the eastern south coast of the Mediterranean Basin) the Egyptians. Geographically located ideally to pursue international trade, NëꞋshans enjoyed natural resources to produce and sell ((before matches) magic firemaking-stone (pyrite), copper, gold, and later, iron.


≈BCE 3000 the Anatolian NëꞋshans began with the indigenousᴷH•ãrꞋrians. ≈BCE 1600 their neighbor-city Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans began to predominate; eclipsing and absorbing the ᴷH•ãrꞋrians. I'm not the only, researcher to independently arrive at this conclusion. "The first thing to realize about the Hittites is that they are not Hittites."

The Original "Sea Peoples" Of The Mediterranean Basin

not only became a superpower axis of international trade overland, they formed an international maritime naval and shipping confederation with the (endonym) Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an citydom (later elcipsed and absorbed by their neighbor (endonym) TzūrꞋi•an citydom).

cBCE 3000–2500 (EBA—Early Bronze Age)

"Late in [BCE 3rd millennium], towards the end of the Early Bronze Age, a [Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan ] settlement developed, marking the beginning of continuous occupation at the site. The [Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans (Hattians)], native Anatolians, called their town [Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha]."
A Brief History of Hattusha/Boğazköy https://archive.is/pvmY; https://archive.is/8x3Q#selection-157.0-161.222


website Home:  

Hauptstadt der Hethiter in Zentralanatolien / Capital of the Hittites in central Anatolia

cBCE 2800–1720: NëꞋsha

EBA3b  cBCE 2300–1750

cBCE 2300 ᴷH•ãrꞋrian (people & language): "neither Semitic nor Indo-European." no classification "generally accepted" (spoken by later Mitannis); Atalshen tablet exhibits Mesopotamian-Semitic (Hattian not Indo-European; wiki/Hattians) deity names.; Mitanni… Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha and other Hittite centres… Khurrian texts… these represent dialects of one language. [Neshan] Another Hurrian dialect… wiki/Hurrian_language;

BCE 2250 Middle Bronze Age (MBA)
Middle Bronze Age (MBA) 2-A 

The Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans (transgarbled to "Hittites") were "an ancient Indo-European people who appeared in Anatolia at the beginning of the [BCE 2nd millennium]". They "first occupied central Anatolia, making their capital at [Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha; transgarbled to "Hattusa"]. 

cBCE 1750–1500

𒄩𒀜𒌅𒊭  (Kū•atᵊ•tū•sha, i.e. Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha) "Hittites" Kanesh or Nesha kingdom; wiki/Hittites)

cBCE 1600–1360

< !-- cBCE 1600–1360 (cBCE 1180 splintered, BCE 8th century? wiki/Hittites): ᴷH•ãrꞋrian (of Mitanni); ("Hittite" cuneiform: 𒆳𒌷𒈪𒋫𒀭𒉌;; aka 𒈪𒀉𒋫𒉌  (Mi•it•ta•ni)) wiki/Mitanni; capital of Khurrian-Mitanni: Wassukkani (unk general vicinity of modern Diyarbakir, SE Turkey) -- >

From earliest times, Anatolia confederated with neighboring Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋ (later eclipsed by their own neighboring citydom, Tzūr) to combine the seaworthy timber of Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•a's vast cedar forests, leading nautical architecture, shipbuilding technology, maritime navigation knowledge and widely sought-after tᵊkheilꞋët dyed textiles—soon to be known in Greek as Φοίνιξ) to expand Anatolia's natural resources, especially inter alia "magic" (i.e. pre-Bic & pre-matches) fire-stone (pyrite) and tin (essential to produce bronze from copper).


cBCE 1600 & Linear-B), the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans

headed west, American archaeologist Michael Frachetti from Washington University in St. Louis and his collaborators recently made a remarkable discovery, which was published in the scientific journal Science Advances at the end of November . Through advanced geochemical analyzes using isotopes , researchers have determined that about a third of the tin that was part of the Uluburn wreck's cargo came from ancient mines near Karnab in present-day southeastern Uzbekistan. At the same time, this place is over 3,200 kilometers away from the port where the tin was loaded onto the ill-fated ship. The remaining two-thirds of the cargo's tin comes from mines in the Taurus Mountains in present-day Turkey. https://www.stoplusjednicka.cz/nalezy-z-3000-let-stareho-vraku-lodi-uluburun-odhaluji-slozitou-obchodni-sit; 360 Degree Historical Studies Association; https://360derece.info/kas-sualti/; https://360derece.info/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/Basliksiz-2-9.jpg; ⅓ of the tin cargo in the hold of the near Uluburun, Turkey was determined by geochemical isotope analysis at Washington Univ. to have come from Uzbekistan (Science Advances, 2022.11;

BCE1330-1300 Tarshish-Class—the model (Khatushan-Kitim-Tzurim) cargo ship sailing-replica starbd Uluburun shipwreck
Click to enlargeIdentical full-scale, sea-going, Tarshish-Class (Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshian-Kit•imꞋ-TzurꞋian) merchant sister-ship of the Uluburun shipwreck, the Uluburun 2 sails the Mediterranean.

"While Uluburun sailed the seas, the world-famous bust of Nefertiti was made in Egypt. Odysseus returned home from his long odyssey. The Egyptian Pharaoh Echnaton [Akhen-Aten's reign ended 36 years earlier] established the first monotheistic religion [having emulated aspects of Israeli monotheism established in Israel over 2 centuries before him]. He and his Queen, Nefer-titi established the pattern of making changes de convenance to the Israeli Tōr•ãhꞋ, thereby displacing Tōr•ãhꞋ with a similar-looking counterfeit – inventing the pattern-jig from which, millennia later, the Apostates Paul and Muhammed would form their respective displacement mythologies. Establishing a solarcentric monotheism, he and Akhen-Aten invented sun(day)-worship. Moses’ successor Joshua led the Israelites [Israel was ruled by our 2nd Shopheit, , 153 years after the death of Yehoshua Bin-Nun] and the Hittites [Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans, having earlier] dominated an area five times larger than Germany [were, along with the entire Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea, suffering the effects of the LBAC]. These were turbulent times from Haithabu to Karnak, as well as at Cape Uluburun on the southern Turkish coast, and this is where a merchant ship with a cargo of priceless goods sank to its grave."
Rico Besserdich. Uluburun – Oldest Shipwreck In the World. 2018.10.20. Underwater360.

By cBCE 14th century, a Ta•rᵊshishꞋ-Class (a Ship of Kit•imꞋ) making a routine Mediterranean maritime trading circuit, has been found to have been carrying cargo from Kᵊrē•të to modern Uzbekistan. 

for their nautical architecture and ship construction technology (as well as their in an international trade system spanning the entire Mediterranean Basin, up the Adriatic Sea into Europe, likely across the Black; soon stretching from modern Portugal across the Caspian Sea into what is now modern who, based on their wealth of cedar, were technology leaders in nautical architecture and ship construction, who exported throughoout the Mediterranean Basin in their to vanguard international commerce Geographically located at the vortex of Mesopotamian, Persian, Semitic, European, infant Greek and Egyptian languages,

It was the NëꞋshan language that fused together 2 chronologically successive neighboring, yet distinct, central Anatolian citydom-empires as NëꞋshan-speakers. While historians and archaeologists distinguished among Anatolian provinces and dialects ("Harrians", "Hattians", "Mittanis", "Luwians", etc.), they then confused and inconsistently conflated them; sometimes grouping them in different ways, and other times lumping them all together—as "Hittites"—where NëꞋshan-speakers, or NëꞋshans is the accurate distinction.

"By [BCE 1340] they had become one of the dominant powers of the Middle East." 

In 1982, just 50m (160') offshore from Uluburun, on the SW Mediterranean coast of Turkey (but at a depth of 44–52m, 140–170'), a local sponge diver Mehmed Çakir, discovered this BCE 1330-1300 Tarshish-Class Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan (Kit•imꞋ)–TzūrꞋi•an (Phoenician / "Minoan") merchant shipwreck (original name unknown, dubbed the Uluburun)—astonishingly well preserved. The Uluburun was 15m (50') long, 5m (16½') wide.

imported seaworthy shipbuilding cedar timber to build the first naval and shipping fleet superpower to dominate the entire Mediterranean Basin. Apparently in confederation with the Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•ans (later the TzūrꞋi•ans), this confederation constituted the original "Sea Peoples".

Developed New International Pidgin Alphabet—Linear A

Linear A Clay tablet Zakro Palace, ArchMus Sitia, Crete)
Click to enlargeLinear A clay tablet (Zakro Palace, Archaeological Museum Sitia, Crete)

The earliest inscriptions of Linear A come from Phaistos, in a layer dated at the end of the Middle Minoan II period: that is, no later than c. 1700 BC. Linear A texts have been found throughout the island of Crete and also on some Aegean islands (Kythera, Kea, Thera, Melos), in mainland Greece (Ayos Stephanos), on the west coast of Asia Minor (Miletus, Troy), and in the Levant (Tel Haror). Woudhuizen, Fred C. (2016). Documents in Minoan Luwian, Semitic, and Pelasgian. Amsterdam: Nederlands Archeologisch Historisch Genootschap. ISBN 9789072067197. OCLC 1027956786. 20230228. wiki/Linear_A

Becoming the naval and shipping power throughout the Mediterranean Basin, where they established coastal port colonies, including Kᵊrē•të and Qū•pᵊr•yꞋ, caused another, unintended, but far-reaching influence that determines our languages and alphabets today. To meet the needs of their international trade they had to develop a method of communicating contracts and basic records of transactions with all of the languages of their far-flung clientele. This required a bare-bones, hybrid pidgin understandable to each of their various-language international trading partners; from Egyptian counterclockwise to the Semites, to Greece and beyond. The result: Linear-A, predominantly hybridizing minimal Greek with minimal MSHPA, minimal Egyptian hieroglyphics—and minimal Indian.

The language of the The world's first world trade superpower NëꞋsha is the place where the earliest record of a definitively Indo-European language has been found, Hittite, dated to the 20th century BC. residents of NëꞋsha, attested in NëꞋshan (not "Cretan") Linear-A (and later in Linear-B) international commercial pidgin cuneiform, bound together the indigenous Anatolian (western Turkey) first naval and maritime shipping and trade superpower citydom of the Mediterranean Basin, the ᴷH•ãrꞋrians, with their nearby Anatolian successor citydom (cBCE 1600 & Linear-B), the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans.

The continuity of naval and maritime hegemony over the Mediterranean Basin between the ᴷH•ãrꞋrian and successor Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan Anatolians, conventionally conflated to "Sea Peoples" ("Hurrians", Hattians", Hittites, Minoans,et al.), are more accurately (and simply) described collectively as "NëꞋshans". It is then far easier to distinguish between the NëꞋshan and Semitic Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an-TzōrꞋi•ans . …

The study of [NëꞋshan] cuneiform and the closely related Luwian language helped modern linguists understand Proto-Indo-European, the supposed mother tongue of all Indo-European languages. Linear A… (direction variable [pointers like Egyptian?]) https://www.oldest.org/culture/written-languages/ 20230228

cBCE3500-1900 Indus script (5 char Indus Valley seal impr Brit Mus)
cBCE3500-1900 Indo script (5 characters, Indus Valley seal impression, British Museum)

Indus seal script (Linear A hybrid example)
Indo seal script hybridized with Linear A (Linear A is read left-to-right): "For [name-cartouche, leftmost symbol]: [2]•[shoulder-yokes-of]•[tū]•[ō]" 

These 2 images only suggest that the Anatolian international pidgin Linear A & B may have similarities, and connections, to Indo. These 2 aren't intended to equate.

However, taken together, the name Ophir, that 2 of the list of products were only available in India, not East Africa (eliminating East Africa), and the similar appearance of the Linear A & B to Indo, strong a priori evidence insinuating that the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha Kit•imꞋ Confederation sailed to the heart of India among their trading expeditions.

almug/algum wood

"Gold, almug (or algum) wood (i.e., sandalwood), ivory, monkeys, and peacocks… ¶ …the Jewish historian Josephus and St. Jerome evidently understood that India was the location of Ophir [אוֹפִיר]. The Hebrew words for the products of Ophir may be derived from Indian languages; furthermore, sandalwood and peacocks are commonly found in India, whereas, at least in modern times, they do not exist in East Africa." https://www.britannica.com/place/Ophir

Ophir (Vaypura, City of Victory) India map
Click to enlargeOphir (Vaypura, City of Victory) India map

Ophir (Vaypura, City of Victory) Mandovi River (Dusk)
Click to enlargeMandovi River at Dusk. Navigable most of the way from the coastal port (now Port Mormugao) to Ophir by Kit•imꞋ ships; not a tiny stream.

The name אוֹפִיר may be a portmanteau derived from אוה (This root's sole Biblical derivative is the masculine noun אי ('i) meaning coast or region (according to BDB: a place whither one betakes oneself for resting, etcetera, originally from a mariner's standpoint)., https://www.abarim-publications.com/Dictionary/a/a-w-he.html 20230301) + Vaypura Vijayapura (Bijapur, Beypore Belgaum) ופור (modern coastal-port city of Panaji, on the west coast of India): perhaps אי ופור (coast of Vapur) transgarbled to אופיר.

Indic names for Gold, almug (or algum) wood (i.e., sandalwood), ivory, monkeys, and peacocks

If Ophir were in E Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia) then we'd be speaking about Afro-European languages. Instead, however, we speak of INDO-European languages—that are elucidated by ᴷH•ãrꞋrians Linear A. A priori, "Ships of Tarshish (Luwian province or dialect of Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋsha Neshan language)" constructed of Tzurian cedar, by ᴷH•ãrꞋrian-Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans (Hebr Kittim) captained and manned by Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshan sailors, sailed regular expeditions to India—not East Africa. Hence, Indo-European, not Afro-European. Also explains why Linear A was a Semitic-Indo-Hellenic, international pidgin commercial language.

Each in their zenith ruled not only Anatolia (modern west Turkey), but (apparently obtaining seaworthy cedar timber in quantity in cooperation with their budding neighboring Semitic-language Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an citydom—later eclipsed and succeeded by their own neighboring citydom of Tzūr) established the first maritime naval and shipping superpower over the entire Mediterranean Basin—colonizing its coaslands into the Adriatic Sea and Southern Europe as well as along the Atlantic Coasts of Spain, Portugal and perhaps northward. While overland shipping of Tzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an cedar to their northern shores may have been prohibitive, future studies might determine whether their maritime naval and shipping dominance extended into the Black Sea as well.

cBCE 1330–1300:
cBCE 1330: Par•ohꞋ Hōr-em-heb in 11th year of his reign
cBCE 1316: Par•ohꞋ Ra-moses Sr.
cBCE 1304: Shopheit Gi•dᵊōnꞋ Bën-Yō•ãshꞋ (Sho•phᵊt•imꞋ 6.11)
cBCE 1300: Par•ohꞋ Set-i Sr. reigns
One of the most important things that the Uluburun tells us is that commercial maritime trade continuing throughout the Mediterranean Basin in concert with land caravans eastward during LBAC.

The Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshanTzi•yᵊd•ōnꞋi•an Confederation is most notable for their Ta•rᵊshishꞋ-Class (Ship of Kit•imꞋ & TzūrꞋi•ans, aka Φοίνιξ, "Phoenicians") naval and shipping hegemony over the entire Mediterranean Basin—known in modern times as "the Sea People"! One modern art-adventurer archaeologist concocted a completely fictional name for the Kᴴa•tᵊ•tūꞋshans (i.e. "Minoans") and subsequent researchers and scholars have followed like lemmings.

BCE1330-1300 Tarshish-Class (Khatushan-Kitim-Tzurim) cargo ship underwater Uluburun port stern
Click to enlargeBCE1330-1300 Tarshish-Class (Khatushan-Kitim-Tzurim) cargo shipwreck; underwater photo, from the port stern (showing rudder attachment) of a full-scale, seagoing, identically replicated sister-ship, apparently the Uluburun 2, deliberately sunk for research purposes 

Pay it forward! Quote & Cite:

Yirmeyahu Ben-David. Neshan Language (up­date). Netzarim Jews Worldwide (Ra'anana, Israel). https://www.netzarim.co.il/Glossary/Neshan language.htm (Access date).

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