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Hebrew Glossary: N-Q

The reason this simple page of glossary definitions is ranked so popular with the search engine is because so many people click on our links to these definitions from the content in… the 'Netzarim Quarter' Village web site in Ra•an•anâ(h), Israel at www.netzarim.co.il

The real content is in the 'Netzarim Quarter'! Click on our logo above for an exciting visit to the 'Netzarim Quarter' where you'll learn about Historical Ribi Yehoshua and his original, Jewish, followers before the great Roman-Hellenist apostasy of 135 C.E.—and even more importantly, how you (whether Jew or non-Jew) can follow the historically true, Judaic, Ribi Yehoshua. In Hebrew, his original followers were called the Netzarim (Hellenized to "Nazarenes").

Until Paqid Yirmeyahu researched the Netzarim name and sect and began publishing about it in 1972 in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) no one in modern times was even aware of the name Netzarim. It stretches credulity that no one in modern times had heard of the Netzarim until Paqid Yirmeyahu published it in 1972… and then, suddenly, everybody figured it out??? Check (and verify) the dates of the earliest works about the Netzarim by the others and you'll see that they are deceiver-plagiarists. Then insist on the person whom ha-Sheim selected to entrust the knowledge, not imposters who falsely call their continuing practice of Displacement Theology "Nazarene Judaism" or directly plagiarize the name "Netzarim."

Because we teach and practice the authentic Judaic teachings of Ribi Yehoshua—not Displacement Theology—we are the only group who have restored the Netzarim to be accepted in the legitimate Jewish community in Israel—genuinely like Ribi Yehoshua and the original Netzarim. Consequently, the 'Netzarim Quarter' is the only web site of legitimate Netzarim / Nazarene Judaism.

Give all the friends you've ever known the chance to know about this exciting site; send them our web site address (www.netzarim.co.il) that opens modern eyes for the first time to the Judaic world that Ribi Yehoshua and his original Netzarim knew, practiced and taught.

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Nâ•âm•i; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Naomi'.

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Nag Hammadi Codices[Updated: 2012.05.07]

Nag Hammadi codices Nag Hammadi Codex II Nag Hammadi, Egypt
Click to enlarge Click to enlarge Click to enlarge

According to BAS:

"…a 13-volume library of Coptic texts… [found] near the town of Nag Hammadi in upper Egypt, … [describing] Gnostic Christianity, from the Greek word γνωσις. The Nag Hammadi codices are 13 leather-bound volumes dated to the mid-fourth century [CE] that contain an unprecedented collection of more than 50 texts, including some that had been composed [emphasis added] as early as the second century…" [Original composition aside, the version in the Nag Hammadi codices reflect Gnostic Christian redactions – and Hellenization – of the 4th century CE.] more

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Nakhal Perat aquaduct (not Wadi Qelt) Midbar YehudahNakhal Perat (not Wadi Qelt) Midbar Yehudah

nakhal; a vale (valley or canyon stream-bed) that typically flash-floods in winter-rains and routinely dries up after the winter rainy season.

This, NOT the Arabic "wadi," is the correct term for seasonal stream (winter rainy season) and-or dry stream-bed (remainder of year), often found in a valley.

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Na•khum; [Y--H] has comforted, consoled; seventh of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh, de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Nahum.'

(Kᵊphar Na•khum; Town or village of Na•khum), i.e. Nakhumville; Hellenized to "Capernaum."

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2015.10.26]

Na•phᵊtâli; my twistings, intertwinings, intrigues; niph•al of (pâ•tal; he twisted, twined); 6th son of Ya•a•qov (mother: Bi•lᵊh•âh, Râ•kheil's maid).

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2013.04.19]

nâ•qav; to auger-out – used in the Bible as the antonym, the opposite, of (bei•reikh; to bless).

Klein assigns four connotations to :

  1. to bore a hole, perforate, pierce.

  2. to prick off, designate, distinguish (for each of which there are more accurate Hebrew terms) and "to pigeon-hole," which is more consistent with the theme of boring a hole.

  3. to curse or blaspheme (for which there are more accurate Hebrew terms) and to skewer with a hole or riddle with holes, or emasculate (see next entry) is consistent with the theme of boring a hole. Klein's suggests this connotation may be a collateral form of (qâ•vav; "to auger," equated to cursing), which Klein notes (p. 559), "for sense development cp. Arab. na•qar•a (= he pierced, hollowed out; he reviled, maligned)" – i.e., "to auger-out"; corroborating . Interestingly, this verb is also similar to (nâ•qar; he bored, pierced, picked-out, gouged-out – cf. Sho•phᵊt•im 16.21). This appears to parallel today's English "chew someone out," which, if pictured literally, would also leave a bored-out hole. The difference between and appears to be the difference between augering out (drilling out a hole with a large auger) and gouging or picking out; both taken figuratively as "cursing out."

  4. to put into a feminine form, to feminize, emasculate—the theme being obvious.

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2008.10.29]

Nâ•si, tribal chieftain; modern: president (in Biblical times, head of the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol); pl. (nᵊsiy•im). not "prince" (which was sar).

Nâ•si derives from the verb (nâs•â; to bear or carry [burdens, responsibilities, etc.]).

Nâ•si describes an executive or manager, in ancient times the tribal chief. Subsequent to Har Sinai, the Nâ•si designated the president of the Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol and was the only person who could ordain Tor•âh teachers in Israel during the existence of the Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol. (A special title was afforded these Torah-teachers ordained by the Nâ•si in the land of Israel during the existence of the Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol: Ribi. The term Ribi is used in no other context.) Thus, the prophesied Nâ•si of the messianic era, the Mâ•shiakh scion of David, will preside over the heavenly Beit-Din hâ-Jâ•dol. Cf. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 38.02.

(Nâ•si Rosh; Chief Nâ•si, head or chief manager, president or executive).

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2013.07.23]

Natzrat-Megiddo topographical map
Click to enlargeLower Gâ•lil and showing and ("Armageddon").

Nâ•tzᵊr•at; Hellenized (i.e. Christianized) in LXX to Ναζαρεθ.

, deriving from the verb , is the combinative form of an unused noun, , which would mean "a protective sentry guard" – a cognate of . Thus, …- means "a protective sentry guard of…"

Much has been overlooked about because the only ones with the necessary security perspective are Israeli Jews, the essentials never occurred to goy•im researchers, and Israeli Jews have been little interested in the mainly Christian discussion of . The meaning of the name, probably a "frontier town" nickname that stuck in place of its original name, , becomes obvious upon looking at a map (especially a topographical map), relative to ("Armageddon"). more

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Pronunciation Table Hear it![Updated: 2006.06.15]

nâ•vi, pl. (Nᵊviy•im), connective pl. - (nᵊvi-…; lit. "the one bringing"; i.e., a prophet; one who calls, proclaims, prophesies; from the verb (ni•bâ; he brought forth, called, proclaimed, prophesied), i.e. one who explicates Tor•âh. In Hebrew, there is no necessary connection to future-telling implied in the English (and Greek) "prophet." The hit•pâ•eil form (hit•na•bei) refers to ecstatically expounding Tor•âh (a title and capacity that Goy•im, who by definition contradict Tor•âh and often can't even read Tor•âh, can never attribute to themselves). Among Hellenist Jews, the concept was understood, via LXX, as προφητης (prophætæs; prophet, in the sense of fortune-teller or future-teller), which is the perception that has trickled down to the modern, Hellenist-derived, western world.

Biblically, a Nâ•vi is an individual who has focused his mind and nature on the developing Tor•âh to the point where he is able to receive the outpouring of the Ruakh (spirit) of --, and is evidenced by his clarity of understanding Tor•âh. (See Ramba"m, Hi•lᵊkh•ot Yᵊsod•ei ha-Tor•âh 7.7; Kha•tam So•pheir, Ëvën ha-Ëzër section 40.)

Thus, the earlier prophets —foreseers —were called (ro•im, seers; e.g. Shᵊmu•eil Âlëph 9.9). These are in contrast to nᵊviy•im who are proclaimers, of Tor•âh because they were Divinely granted deeper insight, which enabled them to provide spiritual and practical guidance to Israel. But were not sent to be the leaders of Israel as were the nᵊviy•im. Thus, nᵊviy•im—expositors of Tor•âh—are embued with greater honor and authority than the earlier .

In contrast, the term ha-Nâ•vi, which essentially means a preacher (Rash"i, Shᵊm•ot 7.1), was commonly used for Jews who exhorted others to go in the Way of Tor•âh, and prayed for them in their time of need (Ë•mët lᵊ-Ya•a•qov, bᵊ-Reish•it 20.7). Obviously, they had to be wise and Tza•diq, but such exponents of Tor•âh weren't, according to the Sages, necessarily Divinely inspired individuals.

Only in later years, when there was a need to send nᵊviy•im to admonish the Jewish people and provide national leadership, did ha-Nâ•vi acquire the general appellation of a prophet. (ArtScroll, Tᵊr•ei •sâr, xix-xx). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 11.9.1.

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.30]

nâ•zir; 1. one who is consecrated, 2 an unpruned grapevine (the grapevine being the ancient equivalent of the family tree), symbolized by unshorn hair and abstinence from wine (pruning grapes from the vine); plural nᵊzir•im; de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "Nazirite." Cognate: (nᵊzir•ut; state of being a nâ•zir; naziriteship)

While LXX usually renders this ευχομαι (eukhomai; [one] "praying" according to Vine's Expository Dictionary), if the nâ•zir-ευχομαι correspondence carried over originally into the NT as one who was consecrated, it was distorted by the later redactions (cf. wish, would or pray in Πραξεις Αποστολων 26:29; 27:29 where, during the time of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh, nâ•zir would have been implied).

LXX also renders nâ•zir as Ναζειραιος (Nazeiraios), which is how it blurred into the totally unrelated, obviously gentile (unable to discern even between a nâ•zir and a Ko•hein ha-Jâ•dol) sect of Ναζωραιος (Nazoraios; Nazoraeans) in NT.

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2010.07.18]

nëdër; a vow. The plural is nᵊdâr•im (vows); pl. connective ni•dᵊr•ei… (vows of…).

(Kol Ni•drei) "all of the vows of…" a tᵊphil•âh to be released from any and all vows forced upon us by the goy•im:

  • Teimân•im: for any and all nᵊdâr•im vowed [under duress] in the coming year;
  • All other traditions: for any and all nᵊdâr•im vowed during the past year,

recited on ërëv Yom ha-Ki•pur•im. Contrary to popular Jewish opinion, this prayer is a medieval addition unknown to the Kha•khâm•im of Tal•mud or their predecessors (much less Mosh•ëh Rab•einu), and does not absolve from any voluntary ; nor does Scripture allow the annulment of any post hoc (except in cases where the is overridden by the principle of pi•quakh •nëphësh).

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2006.04.27]

Negev, Midbar Paran (Mark A. Wilson, Wooster.com)

gëv; the southern portion of Israel; the region south of Bᵊ•eir Shëva.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.03.21]

nâ•hâr; perennial, generally year-round, river; combinative (nᵊhar; river of…).

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Pronunciation Table[Updated: 2010.10.01]

neir (oil lamp)

neir; oil lamp (especially olive-oil), candle (modern); pl. (neir•ot).



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.01.06]

neis (miracle)

neis; an upright pole or standard, flagpole, ensign or signpost. The popular connotation of "miracle" is strictly Modern Hebrew. (For instance, whereas "coffee" in Hebrew is , to order instant ("miracle") coffee in an Israeli restaurant, one asks for a cup of – origin of the brand "NesCafe"?)

For "sign," see (ōt).


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Nᵊkhëm•yâh; "-- has comforted." Book of the Kᵊtuv•im of Ta•na"kh (de-Judaized to Nehemiah) de-Judaized (Hellenized) to 'Nehemiah.'

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.07.12]

nëphësh, fem. n.; pl. (nᵊphâsh•ot); sapience, psyche, free will (see Artscroll 'Bereishis' I.92), translated in LXX as ψυχή and popularly de-Judaized (Hellenized) to "soul."

In LXX, Hellenists comprehended no distinction between and . The two are both rendered by ψυχή—which explains the confusion in subsequent translations.

Your is an inherent part of you—your sapience, your awareness of yourself relative to --, your free will. The purpose of life is to learn to subordinate the to the , and to differentiate those who succeed in doing so from those who fail to do so. Like the , the is also a part of you that continues, along with your after shedding your body. (The body, being physical, is confined to this physical universe. Therefore, it cannot make the transition into the non-dimensional domain of hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ.)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.09.24]

ccc
Click to enlargeNeanderthal Wilma

A ? Perplexingly, the European Neanderthals were stockier and light-skinned while it was the dark-​skinned Homo sapiens out of Africa who populated the Middle East (Gan Eidën; see •dâm) and were taller – more likely . (Wilma design & photo National Geographic, 1996)

Originally (bᵊ-Reish•it 6.4), nᵊphil•im was an indistinct designation for the unknown, legendary, forbears, from distant and dim antiquity, perhaps to explain the presence of bigger peoples – – of their own day.

are related to "sons of ël•oh•im" – perceived by Medieval European Christians and rabbis (!) as "divine or angelic beings" (EJ, "Nephilim," 12.962) – in bᵊ-Reish•it 6.4; see also bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.33). The Tar•gum Onᵊqᵊlos translates both and with the same Aramaic term:

The association with is based on the (much later) only two other citations, both in bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 13.33, where the Israeli scouts gave their evil report. The evil – and exaggerated – report of by these scouts was denounced as false by Mosh•ëh. Ergo, accepting the connotation of "giant" is unjustified. more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2014.06.09]

neshamah: ancient breath = soul

nᵊshâm•âh; breath—which must be distinguished from and .

The notion that means "soul" or "essence," is a modern reform derived entirely from Qa•bâl•âh. In the Bible, by contrast, always means "breath" — even when used figuratively (e.g., I•yov 27.10 & Tᵊhil•im 150.6). Rabbinic attempts based on bᵊ-Reish•it 2.7 to define as "Divine Essence" collide with the reality of paramedics, nurses and doctors who do the same "miracle." bᵊ-Reish•it 2.7 uses to teach that man was created by ‑‑, not a literal "breathing of Divine Essence Breath into" as believers (Jewish, Christian and Muslim) in the "Poof!" theory of creation argue.

In fact, the Hellenist conflation of as one's "essence," universal among today's Jews, is a relatively recent and shocking reform — deriving from "Medieval Jewish Philosophy… [in which] Descriptions of the soul followed Platonic and Aristotelian views, with later Greek thought supplying the models by which man's soul was related to heavenly substances" (Ency. Jud., "Soul," 15.171). The Hellenist roots are firmly documented prior to the 4th century C.E. by Hellenist Greek-speakers of the LXX, who conflated and , rendering both as ψυχή—which explains the modern blurring of the terms.

Healthy Perverted Into Jewish Supremacy Racism

An unfortunate by-product of this Hellenist conflation is the interpretation of the "Jewish neshama" as racist exceptionalism: the belief that the "Jewish neshama," makes genetic, DNA, i.e., racially-defined Jews (born of a Jewish mother) a superior – chosen – race. more

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2012.07.06]

Netzarim - Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea) basal suckers (Ariz St U)
Click to enlargeNᵊtzâr•im - Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea) basal suckers, scions; like little protective sentries guarding the mother tree (Ariz St Univ.)

neitzër, pl. (Nᵊtzâr•im); basal suckers from the root of a tree, especially from an olive tree—like little sentries standing at the foot guarding the mother tree; derives from the prophecy in Yᵊsha•yâhu 11.1 and 60.21.

Contrast , often translated "shoot" against , which is also often translated as "shoot." As is often the case, clarity is found only in the original Hebrew.

Most Christians assume (and Jews simply parrot Christian mythology that is unimportant to them) that the followers of Ribi Yᵊho•shua were originally called "Christians," based on the Hellenist (Greek) Πραξεις Αποστολων 11.19-26. However, the evidence is blatant how the (Greek-speaking) Hellenist Roman Church, compounded by the KJ/V English, used Ναζαρεθ to bury the Hebrew-speaking, Jewish Pharisee (non-Hellenist) rival: the Ναζωραιος – completely burying the even more conspicuous term, Ναζαρηνος. more

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Hebrew Matthew [Updated: 2006.05.10]

Netzarim Hebrew Matthew
Click to enlarge with dates of earliest extant mss.

The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) with date of earliest extant ms.

These are in addition to contextual input from all extant Hebrew and Aramaic literature prior to 399 C.E. (including the Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Josephus, Nag Hammadi codices and alternate "gospels," et al. and the LXX and early Christian historians (e.g., Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerome, Ignatius, Irenaeus Hegesippus, Papias, Origen, et al.):

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

nid•âh; menstruant

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.07.06]

nil•wâh; he was accompanied, escorted; the niph•al of (lâ•wâh; he accompanied, escorted—cf. Kleins Etymological Dictionary of Hebrew, p. 348-9). See geir in Yᵊsha•yâhu 14:1 and Goy•im (Zᵊkhar•yâh 2:15).

The adjective and noun form is (nil•wëh), plural nil•wim. When used as a noun, a ni•lᵊwëh is an escort or accompanier. As an adjective, the term refers to an escort or accompanier ni•lᵊwëh status.

Another cognate of is (Lei•wi), plural Lᵊwiy•im, who escorted the Ko•han•im.

Qa•bâl•ists initiated (mᵊla•weih ma•lᵊk•âh; the accompanying Queen [Shab•ât]) are songs sung in concluding Shab•ât and (Sᵊ•ud•at mᵊla•weih mal•kâh) is the concluding (4th) meal of the accompanying Queen (meaning Shab•ât).

Lâ•wâh is likely the inspiration for the concept, advanced by Ribi Yᵊho•shua, of "grafting" the "wild branches"—geir•im—onto the "olive tree," which is Yi•sᵊr•â•eil. Of the five instances of in MT that connote accompanying, joining or becoming attached, for which the rendering in LXX reflects the same meaning, three instances (bᵊ-Mid•bar 18.2, 4 & Yᵊsha•yâhu 14.1) are rendered by προστιθημι (prostitheimi; to put or place onto) while the other two instances (Yᵊsha•yâhu 56.3, 6) are rendered by προσκειμαι (proskeimai; to lay or rest [something] on [something]). The NT term, ενκεντριζω (enkentrizo; graft onto) is not found in LXX. The term that defines this concept is clearly , from which all three Hellenist (Greek) interpretations derived.

Lâ•wâh implies much more than simple "joining"; and is certainly the antithesis of being integrated, unchanged, into something. Lâ•wâh implies gradual, but active, assimilation into Israel; the abandonment of any elements of one's previous life and culture that conflict with Tor•âh, complemented by the replacing of the abandoned elements through undertaking the life practice and culture of Tor•âh and Israel, i.e. properly interfacing with the Jewish people (Israel) faithful to the example of Rut (1.16) —through the Jewish culture: the Hebrew language, Tor•âh, Jewish music, Jewish chanting of Ta•na"kh, etc.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

niph•al; imperfect intransitive / passive verb bin•yân

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

nâ•qur; gouged-out, boring-a-hole, removing veins from meat.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Seiphër Ni•tzâkh•on Yâ•shân; Scroll of Old Victory; a polemic work against the NT by an unknown author dating from the 13th-century C.E.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Noakh; Hellenized to "Noah." (See also "Bën-.")

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.06.14]

nei•khârꞋ ; a foreigner, i.e., gentile (m.n.); combinative □- (nei•kharꞋ …; a foreigner, i.e., gentile of…).

m.s. adj. (nâkh•ri; foreign, i.e., gentile [entity]); m.p. adj. (nâkh•rim; foreign, i.e., gentile [entities])

(bën-nei•khârꞋ ; a foreigner, i.e., gentile – lit. "son of a foreigner, i.e., gentile")

(bƏn•eiꞋ -nei•khârꞋ ; foreigners, i.e., gentiles – lit. "sons of a foreigner, i.e., gentile")

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or Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

no•sakh; version, draft (noun)

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Χριστιανος / Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.04.02]

Khris•ti•an•os; Christian. (Also spelled in Hebrew and (No•tzᵊr•im; confinement or containment guards or keepers—guards or keepers who keep something in, plural – cf. Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 17.9); the singular noun is , also spelled , (no•tzeir), meaning a "sentry," and the sing. adj. is (no•tzᵊr•i), from (nâ•tzar; to guard as a sentry). These are also the Hebrew terms—used among Jews—for "Christian(s)." Contrast this term against neitzër and its cognate, Nᵊtzâr•im.

In Biblical times, this verb root contrasted with its synonym (shâ•mar; see comparison and contrast of these two synonyms in the Neitzër glossary entry). No•tzeir and its cognates have been reserved for "Christian." more

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Διαθηκη Καινη [Updated: 2012.09.20]

Diathækæ Kainæ; "Freshened Testament" (Anglicized to "New Testament")

The earliest extant complete source texts of what the Christians call their "New Testament" are the Greek—Hellenized—codices א and β of the 4th-century C.E.!!!

Even according to the most authoritative Christian scholars, e.g., The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, acknowledges:

"A study of 150 Greek MSS of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30,000 different readings… It is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the NT in which the MS tradition is wholly uniform… But there are many thousands which have a definite effect upon the meaning of the text. It is true that not one of these variant readings affects the substance of Christian dogma" ("Text, NT," 2nd edition (Abingdon, 1962).

Of course Christians redacting the Jewish texts made Christian redactions to make the Jewish texts compatible with "the substance of Christian dogma." Duh And that's just a tiny peek into a Pandora's Box of misojudaic deceptions and falsehoods. Are you really going to continue believing this web that is woven of syncretized redactions of Egyptian and Hellenist idolatry? more

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Obliterated Names [Updated: 2009.03.08]

Tor•âh prohibits uttering the names of (Ël•oh•im a•kheir•im; other Ël•oh•im) (Shᵊm•ot 23.13; Dᵊvâr•im 12.3 and Yᵊho•shua 23.7). To comply with this Mitz•wâh, we employ strikethrough font (recent), insert an asterisk at the beginning (phasing out this older method) or use dashes (phasing out this even older method) in such names to remind the reader not to utter them (e.g., Aelia Capitolina, Ashtoret, Esotera, Jupiter, Mithra, Zeus, Isis, Iæsous, Jesus, etc. This includes the days of the week named after, and containing the names of, pagan gods, beginning with the most important gods to the pagans: Sunday, Moonday, Tiwe'sday, Odin'sday, Thor'sday, Freyjaday and Saturnday.

In Judaism, as in the Bible, these are called simply Day-one through Day-six and Shab•ât. One soon realizes how pervasive paganism is in Christianity.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Mishkan

Ohël Mo•eid; Tent of Appointment

The Mi•shᵊkân bᵊ-mi•dᵊbar in which Moshëh met with --.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.03.05]

o•lâh (pl. , ol•ot); verb: she is ascending; verbal noun: 1. ascending or ascendance [sacrifice], 2. female immigrant.

The notion of ascendance ("going up") offerings, which were completely burnt, doubtless traces to the earliest concepts for how one could restore oneself to the good graces of the community and the Almighty, which included ridding himself or herself of the stigma (record) of sin and guilt: beginning with the return to doing one's utmost to adhere to Tor•âh, demonstrated by restitution (sacrifice), and then sealed by the sacrifice-associated transgressions being symbolically burned up entirely, destroyed in the fire (on the Mi•zᵊbeiakh), having "gone up" in smoke, leaving a clean slate.

A cognate is f.s.n. (pl. ), used primarily to refer to [a] ascending to read Tor•âh or [b] immigrating (upward), i.e., ascending, to Israel.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

o•lâm; era, epoch, age; world

(hâ-o•lâm ha-zeh; "this age/world, world-age")

(lᵊ-o•lâm), lit. "to the age / world," connotes, and is often specified as, (hâ-o•lâm ha-bâ; "the age/world to come")

Another use of this term is in the phrase (lᵊ-o•lâm va-ëd; forever and ever [lit. "to the age/world and until"]).

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or Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.05]

Omer (barley or wheat) - Shavuot

(omër) 1. sheaf. 2. dry measure representing yield from one sheaf of barley = 2.2 liters = 1/10 (i.e. a tithe of an) . ‭ ‬ 3. 2.2 liters of the firstfruit of barley, brandished / waved in the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh on the morrow after the Shab•ât of the First Day of Khag ha-Matz•ot.

The first and seventh days of khag ha-Matz•ot are each a special Shab•ât, on which mᵊlâkh•âh is prohibited.

Fifty days are counted from this waving of the Omër to Shᵊvu•ot, the first six days of which coincide with the 2nd —7th days of khag ha-Matz•ot.



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/ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Popularly "Onkelos" – 2nd century C.E. Tan•â who translated the Tar•jum (Aramaic translation of Tor•âh). Onᵊqᵊlos is often confused with a separate, presumably Hellenist (Tzᵊdoq•i), geir named Aquila, who translated Tor•âh into Greek.

/ , whose native language was clearly Aramaic, likely derives from the Aramaic term, / (taking property in pledge, pawning, a pawnbroker). This, in turn, likely derives from the context of the Roman occupation and resulting Hellenist Greek term, ἐνεχυρασία.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.26]

oph; poultry, esp. chicken. When ordering at a restaurant or meat market, however, oph invariably refers to , rather than , or .

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

or; light (noun). Prefixing the preposition (lᵊ; to / for) forms (lᵊ-or; to / for a light [of…]). See also ur.

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Ωριγενης [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Ō•ri•genæs; genus of Horus; Anglicized to Origen)

A Hellenist Egyptian gentile (Arab) born in Alexandria, Egypt (ca. 185—254 C.E.); Christian (Catholic) champion of Hellenism and refuter of Gnosticism in the foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile nascent Church; author of "On First Principles" and "Against Celsus." ("Origenes (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:96ff.). The supposition that this Hellenist champion was a Jew glosses over the fact that a Hellenist Jew was an apostate no better than any Hellenist gentile, and that the practice of Hellenism was intractably contradictory to the practice of Judaism.

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Orthodox Jew / JudaismPronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.08.16]

The Jewish Virtual Library defines the concept of Orthodox Judaism as widely accepted among Orthodox Jews:

"Orthodox Judaism is not a unified movement with a single governing body [emphasis added], but many different movements adhering to common principles. All of the Orthodox movements are very similar in their observance and beliefs, differing only in the details that are emphasized. They also differ in their attitudes toward modern culture and the state of Israel. They all share one key feature: a dedication to Torah, both Written and Oral.

"Historically, there was no such thing as Orthodoxy; in fact, you find the particular term is used primarily in North America (elsewhere the distinction is primarily between more observant and less observant). The specific term Orthodox Judaism is of rather recent origin and is used more as a generic term to differentiate the movements following traditional practices from the Liberal Jewish movements."

[Admitting many different opinions as knowledge and technology advance in a dynamic world,] "As practical questions arise, Orthodox authorities apply the Halachic [sic] process (the system of legal reasoning and interpretation described in the Oral Torah [emphasis added]) using the Torah (both Oral and Written) to determine how best to live in accordance with G-d's will. In this way, Orthodoxy evolves to meet the demands of the times. An excellent summary of the core beliefs of Orthodox Judaism may be found in the Rambam's 13 Principles of Faith [which is entirely compatible with the documented historical Nᵊtzâr•im].

"One of the hallmarks of Orthodox Jews is an openness (and encouragement) to question what it is that G-d requires of us, and then to answer those questions within the system that G-d gave us."

Distinction from, and contrast against, "Ultra-Orthodox" (including Kha•reid•im cults and the more positive, modern-Kha•sid•im, Khabad) differentiates the moderate-middle Orthodox Jews from the extremist, fanatical and sometimes cultist fringes. Orthodox Jews are those Jews whose practice defines them within 2σ of the middle of the Orthodox Jewish community. Beyond the +2σ on the fanatic extreme fringe are the often-cultist Ultra-Orthodox sects while, beyond the -2σ at the opposite extreme lax fringe are the non-Orthodox sects. A priori, Orthodox excludes both fringe extremes alike. Ultra-Orthodox themselves corroborate this differentiation between themselves and Orthodox whom they regard as "lesser," "inferior"—even goy•im and worse—even racist discrimination against rival Ultra-Orthodox (e.g., Ash•kᵊnazim barring Sᵊphâ•râd•im girls from an Ultra-Orthodox girls' school).

The Israeli Ultra-Orthodox, Kha•reid•i, Ra•bân•ut (Rabbinate) Reform of the definition of a Jew is a very recent innovation defying, and claiming to overturn, the definition of Ha•lâkh•âh mi-Har Sin•ai.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.01.06]

ōt; a sign, signal, symbol, token or miracle – that can, but doesn't necessarily, exceed one's understanding of science and, in any case, cannot contradict the Perfect Physical Laws, authored by --, that govern our universe. For Modern Hebrew "miracle," see (neis).

In Post-Biblical Hebrew, came to mean a letter of the Hebrew âlëph-beit. There seems to be a cause-effect relationship between the connotation of a letter being a sign and the (post-12th century C.E.) Qabâlist idea of equating a spoken word with a physical object – the supernatural magic belief that the saying. i.e., spoken word, brings a physical object into existence by its proper incantation, rather than the word merely representing it. This association continues to influence much of the view of incanting ("properly reciting," enchanting) "the correct" prayers and blessings. This belief in supernatural magic underlies the Qabâlist idea of a spoken-created "golem" and the long-running pursuit, by some Ultra-Orthodox rabbis, of unparalleled, and unbridled, power over the entire world and God (for which, see "peers God" Dân•iy•eil 7.25 with Ho•sheia 13.4; Yᵊsha•yâhu 45.21-22.

This Qabâlist notion derived from the pagan Gnostics' concept of λογος. This medieval view isn't far removed from the fanciful world of "Dungeons and Dragons" or Harry Potter and has no place either in the modern world or in a Tor•âh-observant life where such sorcery and magical practices are strictly .

To observant Jews, the refers principally to the rainbow (bᵊ-Reish•it 9.12, 13, 17), Shab•ât (Yᵊkhëz•qeil ha-Nâ•vi 20.12, 20), circumcision (bᵊ-Reish•it 17.11), tᵊphil•in (Shᵊm•ot 13.9,16; Dᵊvâr•im 6.8; 11.18), etc.

As for signs ("gifts of the spirit" in Christian parlance) that "prove" one is a "prophet" or "sage." Tor•âh's teaching is explicit (Dᵊvâr•im 13:1-3). Ribi Yᵊho•shua confirmed the Tor•âh teaching (The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 12.38-42).

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OT [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Calling the Judaic Bible the "Old Testament" begs the question of supersession and, therefore, Displacement Theology. In addition to being logically wrong (the logical fallacy of petitio principii), begging this question is offensive, or should be offensive, to Jews.

In addition to this logical fallacy—falsehood—of petitio principii, this offensive assumption also depends upon another logical fallacy: ad ignorantiam (shifting the burden of proof). No responsible scholar denies that Jews recognized the authority of Tor•âh from the time of Har Sin•ai. Therefore, the burden of proof is upon anyone who alleges the polar change of rejecting Tor•âh. Such proof has never been offered because it never existed.

The Nᵊtzâr•im never changed their mind about it, maintaining that only the Jewish Ta•na"kh was Scripture and only their own The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) was a legitimate account of the life and teachings of Ribi Yᵊho•shua.

Nᵊtzâr•im haven't changed, and won't change.

Thus, for Jews, including the Nᵊtzâr•im, OT stands not for "Old Testament" but for "Original Torah." (See also Ta•na"kh and NT.)

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

O•vad•yâh; "ëvëd of Y-h"; fourth of the twelve minor Nᵊviy•im in Ta•na"kh (Hellenized to 'Obadiah').

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pâ•al; action – also the imperfect transitive / active, verb bin•yân; also called qal (simple, light[weight]); the active preterite transitive.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.05.26]

pâd•âh; he ransomed, redeemed; modern verb "cash," as to cash (ransom, redeem) a check or coupon.

(pod•ëh; he ransoms or redeems; he is ransomer or redeemer of…) found only in Dᵊvâr•imꞋ  13.6 and Tᵊhil•imꞋ  34.23. See also go•eilꞋ , often mistranslated as redeem or ransom.

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"Palestinians" vs. Philistines [Updated: 2006.04.27]

(aka Paleban, Palistanis, Hamastanis)

(Pᵊli•shᵊt•im).

  • Biblical usage: ancient —Aegean Greeks—Hellenists (see Philistines and Phoenicians)—not Arabs—Hellenized to Philistines
  • Modern usage: local Arabs who, even by their own insistence until the latter part of the 20th century, are no different from the Arabs in 22 neighboring countries; Hellenized to "Palestinians."

A check of history books and encyclopedias in your local university or public library will confirm that while a number of countries have "administered" this area, no country has attained sovereignty over Israel. Except for the Jews, no country or people has any innate or inherited right to sovereignty. 'Palestinian' claims of sovereignty are a PR bubble devoid of any basis. However, the 'Palestinians' claim of occupation is valid. There is an occupation by squatters who moved in after the Romans drove us from our native land. The Holy Land is Arab-occupied Israel!!!

Arabs initially refused to be called "Palestinians," insisting they were an inseparable part of one pan-Arab Nation.

Many readers may be shocked to learn that "Palestinians" in modern parlance at first didn't refer to Arabs at all. "Palestinians" initially described post-Holocaust Jews immigrating to the Holy Land. The Jerusalem Post, a Jewish newspaper, was formerly The Palestinian Post.

Neither is there any connection between local 'Palestinian' Arabs and the ancient Philistines or ancient "Palestine." Modern 'Palestinian' Arabs freely acknowledge they are Arabs. Yet, any reputable encyclopedia will confirm for you that the ancient Philistines weren't Arabs at all. In fact, the ancient Philistines were an Aegean people who existed before Av•râ•hâm—before the first Arabs and Jews were even born!

Until 135 C.E., the name "Palestine" referred only to a region of Syria and (A•zâh; —Hellenized to 'Gaza'), not to Israel or Yᵊhud•âh. It wasn't until some time after 135 C.E. that Romans renamed Yᵊhud•âh to "Palestine" —in a deliberately misojudaic gesture. 'Palestine' as a name for Yᵊhud•âh or Israel never existed prior to the Roman renaming some time after 135 C.E.! Ever since, only the thoughtless, the ignorant and misojudaics call it 'Palestine.'

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Παπιας [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Pa•pias; pope, priest; Anglicized to Papias)

(Syrian Arab or Turk born in western Turkey in the early 2nd century, i.e., around 135 C.E.), a Hellenist Catholic bishop in the newly-born, infant Christian Hellenist Gentile Church in the interior (Phrygia) of northwestern Turkey, Papias is known only as filtered through the pen of Irenaeus (Haer. 5.33.4), "the earliest witness," filtered again through the pen of Eusebius (EH III.xxxix.1), who doubted any connection between Papias and "John" (EH III.xxxix.3-7). His name, deriving from an epithet meaning "Zeus the Savior," betrays his Hellenist Greek heritage and orientation. Yet, despite being intractably contradictory to them and separated from them by an entire generation, typical of the early Christian fabricators, he reportedly (according to Eusebius) fancifully claimed to have been a disciple of some of the original Nᵊtzâr•im. It is according to Papias that Eusebius records the first mention of the original Hebrew Matityahu. Concerning one of the stories of "St. John" (drinking poison unharmed), "it is likely to have been later than Papias, else we should have been apt to hear of it here." This suggests the true origin of the Greek "Gospel of St. John," which derives from that region of Turkey! ("Papias (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:185ff.)

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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2016.09.25]

Pâ•qid, pl. (pᵊqid•im); Biblical Hebrew: overseer, foreman, chief executive officer, supervisor, monitor, auditor or commissioner; as found in bᵊ-Reish•it 41.34; Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 25.19; Di•vᵊr•ei ha-Yâm•im Beit 31.13; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 29.26; et al.

The title of Pâ•qid traces all the way back through Ta•na"kh to the time of Mosh•ëh. The post-Biblical title, "Rabeinu," (our rabbi) is chronologically impossible, never based in the Bible and simply assumed by rabbis today. Rabbis didn't even come into existence until nearly 1½ millennia (approx. 1454 years) after Moses died!

The Bible offers no title for Moses, his Egyptian Phar­a­on­ic prince surname (meaning "incarnate" in Egyptian) sans the idol-​name prefix (Tut). The most appropriate title can only be gleaned from the verb most often used by the Bible to describe the responsibilities that ‑‑ placed on Mosh•ëh: (pâ•qâd; to oversee, monitor, audit, muster)—inherently implying that he was merely the earthly, mortal foreman for our only true Boss: ‑‑.

The Nᵊtzâr•im Pâ•qid derives from this ancient, Tor•âh-defined job of ‑‑'s mere mortal foreman, later displaced by the "rabbis"—who presume super-divine authority to override and even contradict Ta•na"kh (cf. speaking like a peer "beside" in Dân•iy•eil 7.25; Ho•sheia 13.4; Yᵊsha•yâhu 45.21-22). It should be noted that Ribi Yᵊho•shua, being of the Royal Beit-Dâ•wid, may have registered a subtle displeasure over the rabbis displacing the ancient term of pâ•qid; he clearly wasn't entirely comfortable being addressed as Ribi (The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matitᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 19.16ff), although he held the term up as a positive goal for others (NHM 5.19). After his death, his brother became the first (second, succeeding Pâ•qid Yᵊho•shua?) pâ•qid of the Nᵊtzâr•im.

The modern military term in Israel's IDF for commander is a cognate: (mᵊpha•qeid). In modern Hebrew, pâ•qid, likely due to the displacement of the term to "Rabbeinu" by rabbis, has become degraded to "clerk".

This term was Hellenized in LXX Greek as επισκοπος and later rendered in Vulgar Latinized as ebiscopus—which was then anglicized to "bishop."

was understood in the Hellenist community (witness the LXX) as επισκεπτομαι (episkeptomai; judge critically, examine).

Notice that for the first few centuries—until between 142 and 168 C.E.—there were only επισκοπος—no "popes" (a term that didn't evolve until the 3rd century C.E. when Hegesippus first completed ἐποιησάμην his retroactive succession of "popes"!!! more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.11.11]

American Red Brangus Grand Champion Heifer, 2012 Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo

Pâr•âh Adumâh; clay-colored cow, chestnut cow, popularly the "Red Heiffer." However, "red" refers to "clay-red," not cartoon red. Vide    / 'Red Heifer' Finally Explained.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pâ•râsh•âh, pl. (pâ•râsh•ot), conn. - (pâ•râsh•at-…; distinct, separate section or episode, pop. portion. The term is probably etymologically related to Pᵊrush•im.

The pâ•râsh•ot Shâ•vua (or Si•dᵊr•ot) are successive weekly portions of Tor•âh, with associated Ha•phᵊtâr•âh selections from the Nᵊviy•im. Jews all over the world read the same pâ•râsh•âh on any given Shab•ât in every Beit ha-Kᵊnësët around the world.

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PR aA, the Great Temple Ideogram: Temple, Palace, Hall, house; Phonogram: consonants PR Ideogram: unknown, meaning ''great''; Phonogram: consonants aA Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.12.06]

Paroh Khat-shepset Keruv (ca. BCE 1504-1483; ancient-egypt.co.uk, Metropolitan Museum)
Click to enlargePar•oh Khât-shepset Kᵊruv (ca. BCE 1504-1483; ancient-egypt.co.uk, Metropolitan Museum)
"The Great Temple." (Murray, J., An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary (London: Publisher, 1920), p. 440, On openlibrary.org). Hover cursor over glyph to discover the correspondence.

Used similarly to "the White House," it became a metonym for the ruler in, and personification of, the PRaA – transliterated into Hebrew as (Par•oh), Hellenized, then later Anglicized, to "Pharaoh".
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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Mishkan diagram (parokhet marked ''veil''

Pâ•rokhët; curtain.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.08.23]

pâ•suq, verse, paragraph; pl. (pᵊsuq•im), masc. pl. connective - (pᵊsuq•ei-…; verses of…;.

derives from the root verb (pâ•saq; he cleaved, split, divided, apportioned or assigned). This was understood among Hellenist Jews as the verb κρινω or noun κριτης.

Probably consequently, in Medieval Hebrew, this verb refers to making a halakhic ruling.

(po•seiq; codifying, deciding), plural is (po•sᵊq•im) — medieval term for sho•phᵊt•im of a Beit-Din; this pret. pres. masc. sing. form also being used as a verbal noun to refer to the person making the ruling — i.e., MH codifier [he who is codifying]; NH decider [he who is deciding] — Klein's p. 498). This was understood among Greek-speaking Hellenist Jews as an ηγεμων.

(pl. ) or -, from the Aramaic — the ruling(s) handed down by .

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παθος [Updated: 2011.04.01]

(pathos); Anglicized to pathos.

emotion; defined by Aristotle as argument appealing to emotion (demagoguery or ignoratio elenchi) in contrast to λογος = argument from reason and εθος (ethos) = argument based on morality.

Christians have exaggerated παθος to "passion" and, from there, to πασχω (paskhō; to suffer agony) and, from there, to πασχα (paskha; amplified to the "paskhal–suffering, agony, passion–sacrifice"–displacing the Hebrew and Aramaic (Pis•khâ; in Tar•gum Onᵊqᵊlos), meaning skip-over, pass-over.

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Παῦλος[Updated: 2013.09.27]

b. ca. 3 C.E. — d. Παῦλος ca. 67 C.E.

A Hellenist Turk Jew (from Tarsus, modern Turkey), Shâ•ul was, according to his own testimony, raised in the tradition of Beit-Sham•ai (Πραξεις Αποστολων 26.5), which predominated the Beit-Din ha-Jâ•dol until ca. 20 C.E. It wasn't until the 4th-5th century C.E. that Jerome alleged, probably to create a fictional proximity to Ribi Yᵊho•shua, that Paul's family was originally from the Gâ•lil instead of Turkey.

Considering his rabidly Hellenist career, the 4th century C.E. Hellenist Christian claim (Πραξεις Αποστολων 22.3), that Shâ•ul, a Hellenist Roman citizen from Turkey, studied directly under Nâ•si Ribi Ja•mᵊl•iy•eil (of Beit Hi•leil, not Beit-Sham•ai) suggests yet another 2nd-4th century, impossibly contradictory redaction. The product of the rigid teachings of Beit-Sham•ai is exemplified in the rebel spirit it provoked in Shâ•ul, richly preparing him for his eventual "theophany"; his extreme swing from the rigidness of Beit-Sham•ai to the liberal "vision" of eclectic and inclusive Hellenism (in the tradition of Yᵊho•shua Bën-Shim•on (II) Bën-Tzâ•doq – the original Ko•hein -Rësha cited in the Dead Sea Scrolls). Glossed by the Church, his assimilation into eclectic Hellenist liberalism led inexorably to his kâ•reit from the Nᵊtzâr•im (Eccl. Hist. III.xxvii.4), being "delivered over to the khein of -- by the brothers" (Πραξεις Αποστολων 15.38)—after which (translations gloss) he is never again referred to as Jewish , thereafter only as Hellenist Παῦλος, the Apostate! more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pei•ot; edges.

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Πέλλα [Updated: 2011.04.03]

Pella

Click to enlargeΠελλα (Pella) – one of the Decapolis, in present-day Jordan, 13km (8mi) SE of (then Scythopolis).

Pella or Phei•khal, now Khirbet Fahil (Phakhil); Hellenist Roman city of the Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; in red on map) with forum, public baths, a nymphaeum, and a small theater (odeum). The archeological site is located about 4 km (2.5 mi.) east of Nᵊhar ha-Yar•dein and 27 km (17 mi.) south of Yâm Ki•nërët.

See also First Century Christian Flight To Pella.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

përëq; episode, chapter

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.09.21]

Tree fruits

pƏri; fruit (m.s. and m.s. combinative form: fruit of…); pl. (peir•ot; fruits) and pl. comb. form (peir•ei; fruits of…).



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Pronunciation Table Hear it! [Updated: 2012.07.31]

Pᵊrush•i, pl. (Pᵊrush•im); separate or distinct, Hellenized to Pharisaic or Pharisees. This was the only one of the three 1st-century sects having Ribis and rabbis – forerunners of today's Tei•mân•i and moderate Orthodox rabbis. A priori, it is certain that Ribi (!) Yᵊho•shua was a .

The Pᵊrush•im didn't exist until they first appeared in Judaism in the Maccabean period (B.C.E. 2nd century). These first Ribis were the first to establish local Bât•ei ha-Kᵊnësët to encourage local prayer patterned after the liturgy of the Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh. One of the reasons that Ribi Yᵊho•shua incurred such wrath from the Hellenist pseudo-Tzᵊdoq•im Ko•han•ei hâ-Rësha is because Ribi Yᵊho•shua was becoming so successful in popularizing the practice of praying in Bât•ei ha-Kᵊnësët among the masses, which was perceived as a religious, political and financial rival and, therefore, threat to the Hellenist-Tzᵊdoq•im who, collaborating with the Hellenist Roman occupiers, controlled their (Hellenist Tzᵊdoq•im priests') Hellenized (i.e., idolatrous-assimilated and adulterated) Beit ha-Mi•qᵊdâsh ha-Shein•i.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Pesakh Table

Pësakh; skip-over. Pësakh consists of the Pësakh Seidër (Pësakh liturgy) on the evening of the 14th of Firstmonth (Babylonian "Nisan"). The seven day festival often wrongly called Pësakh is more correctly Khag ha-Matz•ot.



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2010.06.30]

pësha; willful, deliberate, intentional and felonious transgression against Tor•âh; pl. (pᵊshâ•im). Contrast with kheit and â•won.

Cognates: (pō•sheia; willfully, deliberately, intentionally and feloniously transgressing against Tor•âh), pl. (pō•shᵊim).

Contrast with the completely unrelated proper verb for "rebel": . While a willful transgression is rebellious, there is a difference in meaning; the verbs are neither identical nor always interchangeable.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.03.23]

Peshiteta (late 5th century, schoyencollection.com)

Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ; Syriac (Aramaic, ca. 300-399 C.E.) version of the NT.

Although Matityahu was originally written in Hebrew (cf. The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English), note 1.1.1), the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ is a translation from the Greek, not an originally Aramaic work.

In the original Hebrew, there are several different titles / names for Ël•oh•im. These are always differentiated in Hebrew and Aramaic when quoting from the Ta•na"kh (or the Tar•jum).

In the Greek, by contrast, these are all expressed by only two terms, corresponding either to θεος or κυριος. Despite Aramaic's richness in paralleling of names and titles, the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ follows the Greek pattern, unlike original Aramaic and Hebrew texts. The richness of the Aramaic has, with certainty, been funneled and filtered through Hellenized limitations of understanding, translating one of the two Greek concepts.

The only reasonable explanation is that the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ was translated from a Greek (or possibly Latin a-3) text. The Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ, most certainly, does not reflect a pristine Aramaic text. Being a second-generation product of an earlier Greek text, the Pᵊshi•tᵊ•tâ is even less reliable than the earliest Greek mss. This is like the modern Hebrew translation of the NT, which is the product of some Christian organization hiring a modern Israeli to translate the KJ/V into Hebrew.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pᵊshut; simple, plain, by extension literal.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Pᵊsiq; cleaving, halakhic ruling (see pâ•suq) refers specifically to several Mi•dᵊrâsh•im on Tor•âh (from the Alcalay Dictionary):

  • (Pᵊsiqtâ dᵊ-Rav Ka•hanâ), the oldest—5th century C.E.,

  • (Pᵊsiqtâ Rab•âti; large cleaving), 9th century C.E. and

  • (Pᵊsiqtâ Zo•tarti; small cleaving) or (Pᵊsiqtâ Zu•tarti), 11th century C.E.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.05.25]

Click to enlargeTa•lit with Tzitz•it with pәtil tәkheilët, tied No•sakh Tei•mân•i

pᵊtil tᵊkheilët; a string of indigo, required to be included in tzitz•it (bᵊ-Mid•bar 15.38). Bar-Kokh's soldiers, under the mentoring of Rabbi A•qi, used kela ilan—dye from the indigo plant ("Tekhelet," EJ, 15:913-14).



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PG [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Patrologia Graeca, Migne Return to Previous Page
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Φυλιστινοι [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Phu•lis•tinoi; Anglicized to Philistines)

Hammond Map of Ancient Eastern Mediterranean; Mycenaean-Greek—second migration—"Sea People" from Πυλος (Pulos, Anglicized to Pilos in Greece and their colony on the western coast of the Sin•ai—hence "Pilos-tines," while their colony in Gaza came to be called Philistia from the Hebrew influence). Therefore, their name derived from their native Greek and was transliterated into Hebrew as (PƏlish•tim); not the reverse as nearly unanimously assumed.

These "Sea People" were almost certainly reinforced by those from the Mycenaean-Greek colony on the island of Santorini-Thera as the island's volcano became increasingly volatile prior to its eruption ca. B.C.E. 1467-53 (the time of the Yᵊtzi•âh). In addition to founding the new city of Pilos on the northern Sinai shore near the Egyptian Delta, where they undoubtedly encountered great Egyptian resistance, they migrated principally to settle a large colony on the Mediterranean coast southwest of Kᵊna•an.

The Philistines long predated the birth of Yi•shᵊmâ•eil, the first Arab, and were DNA-related to the Mycenaean-Greeks, certainly not Arabs who had not yet come into existence.

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Φιλων [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Philōn; Anglicized to Philo)

Diaspora Hellenist Jew and philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt (b. ca. B.C.E. 20—50 C.E.). Some hypothesize that Yᵊho•shua Bën-Yo•seiph, while a boy in Egypt becoming learned in Greek and mastering Aristotelian analytics (logic, ) and dialectics (debate, ), may also have studied under Φιλων; though later he became a tal•mid of Ja•mᵊl•iy•eil).

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& Phoenician nunPhoenician ayinPhoenician nunPhoenician kaph [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Phoenician Hebrew: KƏna•an) & (Modern Hebrew: KƏna•an; Anglicized to Canaan)

Amaleiq
Click to enlargeMap: Israel ca. B.C.E. 1000

Macedonian-Greek—first migration—"Sea People" attempted, with only partial success, to settle in the Egyptian Delta and, with great success, colonized the Mediterranean coast from modern Turkey south through Lebanon. Thus, the Phoenicians, long predating the birth of Yi•shᵊmâ•eil, the first Arab, are probably DNA-related to the ancient Macedonian-Greeks, certainly not Arabs.

DNA sampling suggests that the Phoenicians are roughly synonymous with today's Lebanese.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Pidyon ha-Ben
Aqeidah, sacrifice of the Ayil (ram)
A•qeid•âh (incognizant surreal fingerpainting by Yâ•eil in 1990 – at 4 years old). Hover cursor for help. Click image to display enlarged photo.

Pid•yon ha-Bein; ransom of the first-born-son — reminiscent of the A•qeid•âhꞋ .



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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pi•eil; intensive-causative verb bin•yân; transitive / active.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.11.10]

black pepper cornshot chili peppers

pil•pul; peppering ( [pil•peil] is pepper). Used metonymically of casuistry, polemics, peppery argumentation.

Notice that the Hebrew theological meaning differs significantly from Aristotelian dialectics and debate—which the rabbis dismiss as "Hellenist." This error is one of the two unreliable pillars of rabbinic evolution that has, in some cases, caused rabbis over-skilled in casuistry—while under-skilled in logic—to lead Jews far astray from Tor•âh.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.09.04]

pi•quakh nëphësh; cognizance (overseeing, supervising) of the psyche, i.e. saving an endangered soul / life from any reasonably perceived threat; i.e., a medical emergency.

There are three categories of violation for which pi•quakh nëphësh does not apply and one must choose martyrdom rather than commit any of these three categories of violation (Ma•sëkët Sunedrion 74a-b):

  1. a•vod•âh zâr•âh,

  2. illegitimate sexual violations, or

  3. murder (which includes lᵊshon hâ-, murdering someone's reputation).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.08.24]

Pitah Iraqit (haShipudia)
Pitâh I•raq•it (ha-Shipudia Restaurant, Yᵊru•shâ•layim)

Pitâh; popularly spelled "pita." The most authentic, both to Har Sin•ai and the 1st century CE, is Pitâh I•raq•it – from the land of Av•râ•hâm; which makes it sort of an Israeli family recipe. To make your own Pitâh I•raq•itmore


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'Pizza Process' [Updated: 2006.04.27]

A hybrid of the "salami negotiating tactic" combined with the blood-shedding of terrorism.

The "salami tactic" is a well-known negotiating tactic by which one side extracts a slice at a time until they have taken the entire salami.

The 'Palestinian' Arabs call their salami tactic their "plan of phases," by which they intend to take whatever they can get, applying terrorism whenever convenient, slice by slice, until the "holy Islamic middle east" has been "ethnically cleansed" of Jews. Using human bombs, Arabs turn our streets into a grisly pizza of Jewish blood and body parts. Their 'Salami Tactic' is more accurately a grisly 'Pizza Tactic' for acquiring "all of 'Palestine'" (as they call Israel) a grisly pizza-slice at a time through terrorist warfare.

With a wink to Arab terrorists, the world pervertedly calls blowing up Jews a "peace process." 'Palestinians' get the peace —plus land, money, and employment —while Israel and Jews get a war of terror, a grisly 'Pizza Process', and nearly unanimous condemnation by the UN for resisting this wonderful opportunity to go like sheep to our slaughter like we did in the Holocaust.

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𝔓n (or P-n) [Updated: 2012.04.07]

𝔓1, …, 𝔓25, … 𝔓64, …; papyrus fragments.

Though obviously Hellenized, being in Greek, the papyri fragments represent the earliest sources of tiny parts of the NT and The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English). Despite their antiquity, there is little evidence to suggest that papyri should be regarded as authoritative. Their authorship and usage may signify nothing more than the recall of Greek-speaking Roman (pagan) students of apostate Hellenist Jews. Consequently, one might incline toward and even β in preference to a given papyrus.

Yet, things aren't so simple. We can see that misojudaism antinomian (anti-Tor•âh; in concert with misojudaic attitudes) increased with the passage of time among those who exercised control over the mss. Consider graphing time on an x-axis and increasing antinomianism on the y-axis. The earlier we can view this text in terms of time (the x-axis), the lower the point at which we can intercept the antinomian curve on the y-axis. This minimizes the antinomian distortion and misojudaism in the text.

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Πολυκαρπος [Updated: 2011.03.29]

(Po•lukar•pos; Anglicized to Polycarp)

b. ca. 70 C.E., Greek-speaking Hellenist who, ca. 110 C.E., became bishop of an isthmus (Smyrna) jutting into the Aegean Sea from western Turkey during the late-foetal (64 C.E.—135 C.E.), proto-Christian Hellenist Gentile Church and claimed to know one "apostle"—"St. John." Because he held office for such a long tenure and became so venerated, the popular belief arose that he had been "a hearer of St. John" and had received his "episcopate" from "St. John." This, despite his Hellenist and seething misojudaism orientation (denouncing those—predomnantly Jews—who rejected his Hellenist Christian Church as "the firstborn of Sâ•tân" and blaming his martyrdom primarily on "the Jews") while being intractably contradictory to the Nᵊtzâr•im—who recognized only the Pâ•qid and Beit-Din ha-Nᵊtzâr•im in Yᵊru•shâ•layim.

"Our knowledge of the life of Polycarp between the date of his letter and his martyrdom is almost entirely derived from three notices by Irenaeus" "During the later years of his life Gnostic speculation had become very active, and many things unknown to the faith of ordinary Christians were put forth as derived by secret traditions from the apostles." The same must be stated of claims made by other gentiles that their Hellenist traditions were derived from the "apostles." ("Polycarpus (1)," Smith & Wace, "A Dictionary of Christian Biography," IV:423ff.)

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Pseudepigrapha [Updated: 2006.05.26]

The editor of The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Garden City: Doubleday 1983, Vol. I, p. xxiii), James H. Charlesworth, defines "the Pseudepigrapha as follows: Those writings

  1. that, with the exception of Ahiqar, are Jewish or Christian;
  2. that are often attributed to ideal figures in Israel's past;
  3. that customarily claim to contain [God]'s word or message;
  4. that frequently build upon ideas and narratives present in the Old Testament [sic];
  5. and that almost always were composed either during the period [B.C.E. 200] to [200 C.E.] or, though late, apparently preserve, albeit in an edited form, Jewish traditions that date from that period."

– "…to call the Pseudepigrapha 'non-canonical,' or the biblical books 'canonical,' can be historically inaccurate prior to [100 C.E.] and the period in which most of these documents were written. These terms should be used as an expression of some later 'orthodoxy' about a collection that is well defined regarding what belongs within and what is to be excluded from it. It is potentially misleading to use the terms 'non-canonical,' 'canonical,' 'heresy,' and 'orthodoxy' when describing either Early Judaism or Early Christianity" (Charlesworth, p. xxiv).

However, the above statement is misleading without noting Charlesworth's earlier acknowledgment of the earlier compilation of Ta•na"kh (p. xxiii), "it is becoming obvious that the process of canonization began long before the first century [C.E.], and that perhaps the earliest part of the Bible, the [Torah], had been closed and defined as authoritative well before the second century [B.C.E.], and the Prophets surely by that time. On the other hand, it is clear that after [90 C.E.] there were still debates regarding the canonicity of such writings as the Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, and Esther, but it is not clear what were the full ramifications of these debates. It seems to follow, therefore, both that the early Pseudepigrapha were composed during a period in which the limits of the canon apparently remained fluid at least to some Jews [namely, the Hellenists, who can be dismissed], and that some [i.e., Hellenist] Jews and [Hellenist] Christians inherited and passed on these documents as inspired. They did not necessarily regard them as apocryphal, or outside a canon."

The Dead Sea Scrolls are customarily considered a separate class, and excluded, from the Pseudepigrapha or Apocrypha.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

pu•al; intensive-passive intransitive verb bin•yân.

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Q [Updated: 2009.04.23]

(Quell; source {German}).

Hypothesized source document supposedly used as the basis for later Christians to compose the Christian "gospels."

More accurately, Q represents a synthesis of the earliest (post-135 CE) Hellenized oral accounts—stories and myths—of Hellenist (i.e., Greek-speaking) Jews to the Hellenist, gentile, Roman Christians.

Unsurprisingly, the Hellenist product supports Paul's Hellenist Christianity, leaving precious little authentic Judaic content.

It can be seen from the historical record that the Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhu, documented by Eusebius, in contrast to Q, would have been a thoroughly Judaic description uncontaminated by Hellenism / Christianity. However, pointing to a few, sparse, Judaic elements in the heavily Hellenist-redacted "gospels" as "Q" ignores the many Hellenizing redactions that, when restored to their Judaic original, produces a far fuller and richer account. This can be achieved only by threading back from the NT Greek, matching it to LXX Greek to restore a Tor•âh-faithful Hebrew Ma•tit•yâhuexactly what The Nᵊtzârim Reconstruction of Matityâhu, alone, has achieved.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2009.01.20]

Qa•bâl•âh; "received," popularly (but incorrectly) spelled 'Kabbalah,' "is the traditional and most commonly used term for the esoteric teachings of Judaism and for Jewish mysticism, especially the forms that it assumed in the Middle Ages since the 12th century" ("Kabbalah," Ency. Jud., 10.489).

"The most famous work of Qa•bâl•âh, the Zohar. was revealed to the Jewish world in the thirteenth century by Moses De Leon ["Shem Tov"; Castile, Spain], who claimed that the book contained the mystical writings of the second-century rabbi [Shim•on Bar Yo•khai (post-135 C.E.)]. Almost all modern Jewish academic scholars believe that De Leon himself authored the Zohar" (Jewish Virtual Library) [emphasis added].

The Ram•ba"m vehemently opposed the irrational superstition and mysticism that his fellow countryman, De Leon, developed, a century later, into Qa•bâl•âh. more

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Qa•dish; consecration, sanctification, deeming as holy, as defined in Tor•âh.

Conventionally anglicized (Hellenized) to "Kaddish." Contrary to more than a few ignorant Jews, the Qa•dish is NOT, nor has it ever been, a prayer for the dead!

Like most Judaic Tᵊphil•ot, the Qa•dish received its name due to its opening phrase:

(yit•ga•dal wᵊ-yitqa•dash shᵊm•ei rab•â; may be magnified and may be sanctified His Great Name).

There are four versions of this tᵊphil•âh: Complete Qa•dish, Half Qa•dish, Scholar's Qa•dish and Mourner's Qa•dish. The overriding purpose of each is to sanctify the Great Name. The mourners' version (Mourner's Qa•dish) sanctifies the Great Name even in the face of great sorrow and mourning. It contains not even a remote hint of any prayer for the dead.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.06.13]

Qâ•dosh; adj. – consecrated, holy as defined in Tor•âh; pl. (qᵊdosh•im), Hellenized to "saint(s)".

(ha-Qâ•dosh; the Holy), i.e., -- and is invariably followed by the phrase (bâ•rukh hu; blessed be He).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.03.08]

qâmatz; T-shaped "aw" vowel located beneath a consonant.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Qᵊdush•âh; consecration, holiness, the third bᵊrâkh•âh of the A•mid•âh, containing the recitation of "Qâ•dosh Qâ•dosh, Qâ•dosh."

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/ Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.05.29]

Qᵊhil•âh & Qâ•hâl; community & convocation (summoned-congregation, appointed-assembly, invited-audience), respectively. The connective form of qᵊhil•âh is - (qᵊhil•at; community of…). The plural is (qᵊhil•ot).

Hellenized to εκκλησια (ekkleisia; congress, corrupted to "church").

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.08.20]

qeitz; cut-off, termination; a non-routine end. derives from the verb (qâtz•atz), meaning "chop off." A synonym, (soph), translates more accurately as "end." Another synonym for "end," (kal, all, finish, end), found in Dân•i•eil, is used as a verb in the sense of "that's all," "finish up" or "end it."

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2007.09.14]

qᵊrei; "recited" form of a questionable word in Tor•âh; as contrasted against the kᵊtiv form.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2011.08.01]

qi•rƏyâh; town; combinative form: … (qi•rƏyat… -town).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Qërën, dual , irreg. pl. ; a beam or horn (animal, musical and cornucopia; by extension financial fund), as in the four of the Mi•zᵊbeiakh; also a symbol used in ancient cantillation marks.

(Note a frequent error by Hellenist Διαθηκη Καινη (NT) scholars: The tiny tick on some C.E. (i.e., non-ancient) Hebrew letters, as found in the font and calligraphy from the earliest extant (Middle Ages) Seiphër Tor•âh until today is a , not a . Any perusal of pre-33 C.E. Hebrew mss. demonstrates that the did not exist as part of a letter in the scribal mss. up through the 1st century C.E. Therefore, could not have been what Ribi Yᵊho•shua used as an example in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) 5.18. As there are no Hebrew mss. of that period exhibiting written trops, it seems very probable that this was part of the Ha•lâkh•âh.)

While named differently in different traditions, the most pristine – No•sakh Tei•mân – instantiates the as forward-leaning ‭ ‬ ( ֙, note the leftmost position), which stands alone, or forward-leaning ‭ ‬ ( ֨, note the centered position), which may be found alone (as in bᵊ-Reish•it 1.2 in the word ֨֙, where the conjunctive, , is followed by the disjunctive ) or paired with backward-leaning ‭ ‬ ( ֜) as to delimit a clause (i.e., ֨ ֜ – as found in the first two words of Mᵊlâkh•im Beit 1.6).

Thus, losing, or even wrongly placing, a would alter the punctuation, the reciting, the phraseology and resulting interpretation of a passage of , which would then radiate apostate implications causing extensive misinterpretations.

Confusing a (Hellenized to ιοτα) with a in an old, hand-copied and worn manuscript could be even worse.

That Ribi Yᵊho•shua used a cantillation mark as an example instantiates the antiquity of the written system. See further details in The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 5.18.2.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2008.09.15]

Qidush cup, pewter (tarnish resist) with easy-clean plastic liner

Qi•dush; "consecration, sanctification, a making holy"; blessing over wine, often followed by a light brunch or meal.

' (Qi•dush ha-Sheim; consecration, sanctification or making holy of the Name) complemented by lᵊ-hav•dil, khi•lul ha-Sheim, form counter-balancing pillars, sanctification versus diminution of the kâ•vod of ha-Sheim, constituting one of the most significant concepts in Tor•âh, based on wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 22.31-32.

Two orientations or perspectives apply to these counter-balancing pillars: ha-Sheim-originating (seeing ha-Sheim as the Sanctifier of His Name; e.g. Yᵊkhëz•qeil 20, 36, 39) and man-originating (seeing man as sanctifying—or failing to sanctify (including giving proper credit to)—the Name; e.g., bᵊ-Mi•dᵊbar 20.12; Dᵊvâr•im 32.51; wa-Yi•qᵊr•â 22.32; Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhu 34.16; •mos 2.7).

According to rabbinic interpretation, Qi•dush ha-Sheim could be consummated in three ways: martyrdom, exemplary ethical and moral conduct and tᵊphil•ot.

Two formal tᵊphil•ot of the si•dur stand out in this respect: the Qᵊdush•âh and the Qa•dish. The Qᵊdush•âh is based on Yᵊsha•yâhu 6.1-3. The more esoteric recitation, preceding the Shᵊm•a, refers to the sanctification of -- by the mᵊlâkh•im, while the recitation in the A•mid•âh is a live recitation by Yi•sᵊr•â•eil sanctifying ha-Sheim.

See also khi•lul ha-Sheim.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Teimani mezuzah qlaph

Qᵊlaph; parchment, especially handwritten parchment for a mᵊzuz•âh.


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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2013.04.12]

Qodësh, pl. – consecration, consecrated-thing, holiness, holy-thing (m.n.), as defined by Tor•âh.

The perversion of Hellenist syncretism can be seen in the correspondence, via LXX, to αγιος (agios; dedicated to the gods). See also The Nᵊtzâr•im Reconstruction of Hebrew Ma•ti•tᵊyâhu (NHM, in English) note 1.18.7.

– popularly, "Holy of Holies."

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2006.04.27]

Qo•hëlët; convoker, one who convokes a convocation. This is Shᵊlomoh ha-Mëlëkh, the one who called the (Qâ•hâl; convocation) to assembly (cf. also qᵊhil•âh); fourth of the five Mᵊgil•ot (de-Judaized to Ecclesiastes, "churcher"). Qᵊhil•âh is a cognate of the same root.

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" Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.09.23]

Qapheikh, Rabbi  Mori Yoseiph
Rav Mor′ i Yo·seiph′ ′ pheikh (1918–2000)
Gapheikh, Mori Yikheya
Mori Yi′ khәyâ Gâ′ pheikh (Tei•mân•i′  pronunciation) 1853–1932
Rav Yo•seiphpakh (popularly "Kapakh"), 1917.11.27 in Tei•mân – 2000.07.21 in Yi•sᵊrâ•eil; the foremost rabbi in the nascent Tei•mân•i – and Dor Daim – community in modern Yi•sᵊrâ•eil.

was the grandson of, and raised from the age of 6 by, ‭ ‬ (1853–1932), the Chief Rabbi of Sana'a and founder of the Dor Daim (rational, anti-Qa•bâl•âh) movement advocating for logical Ha•lâkh•âh, explicitly as formulated in the Mi•shᵊn•ëhꞋ  Tor•âhꞋ  of Ram•ba"m.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.07.08]

Qor•bân, pl. (qor•bân•ot; approach-gift, convergence-gift, communing-gift), metonym for (zëvakh; sacrifice, especially a sacrifice-feast or banquet) – and, via this usage as a metonym, qor•bân obtained the connotation of "victim."

While zëvakh is a proper cognate of sacrifice, deriving from the same verb stem as Miz•beiꞋ akh, qor•bânꞋ  derives from (qâ•rav; he came close, converged with). Zëvakh emphasizes the Mi•zᵊbeiakh, sacrifice and subsequent banquet feast while qor•bân, by contrast, stresses a prescribed, mandatory approach-gift implying resulting convergence and communing together.

Though pop. "approach," the nouns (qërëv; innards, see pâ•râsh•at Tzav, 7.3) and (qᵊrav; hostile convergence, i.e., hand-to-hand combat) demonstrate that mere approach doesn't fully relate , which implies approach that culminates in convergence and communing together. The cognate , then, implied the necessary provisions for expiation that enables (re-)convergence with --—i.e., convergence-, communing-.

Just as it is the custom to bring a house-warming gift (bottle of wine or the like) when invited to someone's home for a dinner or evening, so the parallels the custom of bringing an appropriate gift when obtaining an audience with a King.

Another term deriving from is (qi•ruv; outreach – resulting in convergence).

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2016.09.17]

qât•ân; little, small.

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Pronunciation Table [Updated: 2012.08.26]

/ (khallâh/Pitâ)
Qu•bânâh Tei•mân•it (popularly corrupted "Kubaneh"; i.e., Khal•âhꞋ  Tei•mân•it), with baked egg in shell.

Qu•bânâh (khâ•lâv); prepared before Shab•ât, this khal•âh Tei•mân•it, including one egg (in shell) per person, bakes all night and is served warm (off a hotplate) as khal•âh with the noon Shab•ât Qi•dush (after Sha•khar•it and Mu•sâph), embellished with a bit of skhug. To make Qu•bânâh, … more


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